DIBELS Next

Nonsense Word Fluency - Correct Letter Sounds

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyhalf bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate High
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityempty bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Dataempty bubble
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time1 Minute
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

DMG: Materials may be downloaded at no cost from DMG at http://dibels.org/next. Minimal reproduction costs associated with printing.

Amplify: The basic pricing plan is an annual per student license of $14.90. For users already using an mCLASS assessment product, the cost per student to add mCLASS:DIBELS Next is $6 per student. 

Voyager Sopris: There are three purchasing options for implementing Progress Monitoring materials in Year 1:

1) Progress Monitoring via Online Test Administration and Scoring

2) Progress Monitoring materials as part of the purchase of Classroom Sets, which also include Benchmark materials and DIBELS Next Survey

3) Individual Progress Monitoring materials. DIBELS Next Classroom Sets contain everything needed for one person to conduct the Benchmark Assessment for 25 students and the Progress Monitoring Assessment for up to five students. These easy-to-implement kits simplify the distribution and organization of DIBELS Next materials.

Testers will require 4-8 hours of training. Examiners must at a minimum be a paraprofessional.

Training manuals and materials are field tested and are included in the cost of the tool.

DMG: Customer Support is available from 8:00am to 5:00pm PST, Monday through Friday by phone, email, or through DMG's website.

Voyager Sopris: 8:00am to 6:00pm CST, Monday through Friday by phone, email, or through the Voyager Sopris website.

Amplify: Customer Care Center offers complete user-level support from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. EST, Monday through Friday. Customers may contact a customer support representative via telephone, e-mail, or electronically through the mCLASS website. Additionally, customers have self-service access to instructions, documents, and frequently asked questions on our Website.  The research staff and product teams are available to answer questions about the content within the assessments.

Accommodations:

DIBELS Next is an assessment instrument well-suited for use with capturing the developing reading skills of special education students learning to read, with a few exceptions: a) students who are deaf; b) students who have fluency-based speech disabilities, e.g., stuttering, oral apraxia; c) students who are learning to read in a language other than English or Spanish; d) students with severe disabilities.  Use of DIBELS Next is appropriate for all other students, including those in special education for whom reading connected text is an IEP goal. For students receiving special education, it may be necessary to adjust goals and timelines. Approved accommodations are available in the administration manual.

Where to obtain:

DMG
859 Willamette Street, Suite 320, Eugene, OR 97401
541-431-6931
(888) 943-1240
http://dibels.org

Amplify Education, Inc.
55 Washington Street, Suite 900
Brooklyn, NY 11201
1-800-823-1969, option 1
www.amplify.com

Voyager Sopris
17855 Dallas Parkway, Suite 400, Dallas, TX 75287-6816 (888)399-1995
http://www.voyagersopris.com

DIBELS Next measures are brief, powerful indicators of foundational early literacy skills that: are quick to administer and score; serve as universal screening (or benchmark assessment) and progress monitoring; identify students in need of intervention support; evaluate the effectiveness of interventions; and support the RtI/Multi-tiered model. DIBELS Next comprises six measures: First Sound Fluency (FSF), Letter Naming Fluency (LNF), Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF), DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF), and Daze. 

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) is a brief, direct measure of the alphabetic principle and basic phonics. It assesses knowledge of basic letter-sound correspondences and the ability to blend letter sounds into consonant- vowel-consonant (CVC) and vowel-consonant (VC) words. The test items used for NWF are phonetically regular make-believe (nonsense or pseudo) words.

Administration of the test takes 1 minute and should be administered in an individual setting.

Assessor shows a page of nonsense words (VC and CVC) to student. Student reads the words. The score is the number of correct letter sounds (CLS) the student reads in one minute.

Raw scores and developmental benchmarks are available. Raw scores, cut points, and benchmark goals are all grade-specific but are not strictly based on grade norms.

 

Classification Accuracy

Primary Sample 

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on GRADE™ (Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation)

 

Kindergarten

n = 168

1st Grade

n = 196

2nd Grade

n = 214

False Positive Rate

0.28

0.29

0.30

False Negative Rate

0.18

0.36

0.21

Sensitivity

0.82

0.64

0.79

Specificity

0.78

0.71

0.70

Positive Predictive Power

0.31

0.27

0.29

Negative Predictive Power

0.96

0.92

0.96

Overall Classification Rate

0.73

0.70

0.71

AUC (ROC)

0.83

0.78

0.85

Base Rate

0.13

0.14

0.13

Cut Points:

8

33

35

At 90% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

0.56

0.53

0.63

At 80% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

0.73

0.58

0.68

At 70% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

0.81

0.67

0.82

Cross-Validation Sample

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on the CSTs (STAR program)

 

2nd Grade

n = 1,158

False Positive Rate

0.16

False Negative Rate

0.28

Sensitivity

0.72

Specificity

0.84

Positive Predictive Power

0.38

Negative Predictive Power

0.96

Overall Classification Rate

0.83

AUC (ROC)

0.86

Base Rate

0.12

Cut Points:

35

At 90% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

0.66

At 80% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

0.77

At 70% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

0.85

 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

·         Number of States: 5

·         Regions: Divisions 3 and 4 (North Central Midwest) and Division 9 (Pacific West), according to the US Census Bureau

·         SES: 16% Free/Reduced Lunch Rate (according to NCES data aggregated at the school level)

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   94% White, Non-Hispanic

o   <1% American Indian/Alaska Native

o   <1% Black, Non-Hispanic

o   <1% Asian, Pacific Islander

o   4% Hispanic

Description of cross-validation study sample:

·         Number of States: 1

·         Regions: Division 9 (West), according to US Census Bureau

·         SES: 31% eligible for free or reduced-price lunch

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   46% White, Non-Hispanic

o   38% Hispanic

Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient Range

Coefficient Median

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Inter-Rater

K-1

 

0.99-0.99

0.99

NA

Participants included students in kindergarten through second grade from 634 districts. This data was from a sample that was approximately 45% White, 20% African American, and 27% Hispanic. See DIBELS Next Technical Adequacy Brief for more information.
Alternate-From

K-2

 

0.82-0.85

0.84

5.70-12.59

Participants included students in kindergarten through second grade from 634 districts. This data was from a sample that was approximately 45% White, 20% African American, and 27% Hispanic. See DIBELS Next Technical Adequacy Brief for more information.

 

Validity

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient  Range

Coefficient Median

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Content K-2         The word pool for Nonsense Word Fluency consists of CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) and VC (vowel-con­sonant) nonsense words. The letters “q” and “x” were not used, since they typically represent more than one phoneme. The letters “h”, “w”, “y”, and “r” were used only in the initial position, and the letters “c” and “g” were used only in the final position. Real words and words that sounded like inappropriate words were excluded, but words that sounded like real words were not excluded. The words were generated automatically in Microsoft Excel, and the excluded words were identified manually. The final word pool included a total of 1,017 items, two of which were used as example items and so do not appear as test items. The words were then divided into six difficulty categories based on the pattern (CVC and VC) and on the relative difficulty of the consonants. The con­sonants judged to be easier were b, c, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, and t. Letters were judged to be easier if they appear more often in words, since students will see them more often and many curricula teach higher frequency letters first. Each form consists of 50 items. Before creating the individual forms, a stratified sequence of the different difficul­ty categories was developed. Further details are available on pages 24-26 of the DIBELS Next Technical Manual.
Construct K-1 GRADE 170-214 0.47-0.51 0.49 Construct validity was computed by calculating the correlation between NWF CLS and the GRADE using data collected from the 2009-2010 school year. The districts reported 15% of students were eligible for subsidized lunch, and 2% were English Language Learners. Of the students who received the GRADE, 6% were Hispanic or Latino, 5% multiracial, and 1% American Indian or Native Alaskan.
Construct 2 California State Standards Test 1,158   0.58 Construct validity was computed by calculating the correlation between NWF CLS and the CST using data collected from the 2010-2011 school year. The district is comprised of 38% Hispanic or Latino; 31% subsidized lunch; 20% English Language Learner.

Predictive

Grade 2
to predict
Grade 3

IREAD3

28,275

 

0.47

Validity was computed using DIBELS NWF-CLS data from school year 2011-2012 to predict IREAD3 data from school year 2012-2013. 9% African American, 8% Hispanic, 2% Asian, 5% Multi-race; 27% subsidized lunch; 5% special education; 4% English as second language.

Predictive

K-2

GRADE
Total Test

170-214

 0.47-0.51

0.49

Participants included students in kindergarten through sixth grade from thirteen schools across five states. 

 

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Disaggregated Classification Accuracy 

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on the DIBELS Grade 2 BOY to Grade 3 IREAD

Cross-Validation

Overall

White

Black

Hispanic

False Positive Rate

0.05

0.03

0.17

0.10

False Negative Rate

0.76

0.81

0.57

0.64

Sensitivity

0.24

0.19

0.43

0.36

Specificity

0.95

0.97

0.83

0.90

Positive Predictive Power

0.80

0.81

0.79

0.79

Negative Predictive Power

0.60

0.61

0.50

0.57

Overall Classification Rate

0.63

0.63

0.59

0.62

AUC (ROC)

0.70

0.71

0.64

0.68

Base Rate

0.46

0.43

0.60

0.51

Cut Points:

54

54

54

54

At 90% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

1.51

1.51

1.54

1.47

At 80% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

1.42

1.43

1.39

1.36

At 70% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

1.34

1.36

1.24

1.26

Disaggregated Validity

 

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

 

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient (if applicable)

 

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Predictive Validity
(Caucasian)

Grade 2
to predict
Grade 3

IREAD3

15,020

 

0.45

Validity was computed using DIBELS NWF-CLS data from school year 2011-2012 to predict IREAD3 data from school year 2012-2013. 27% subsidized lunch; 5% special education; 4% English as second language.

Predictive Validity
(African American)

Grade 2
to predict
Grade 3

IREAD3

2,674

 

0.42

Predictive Validity
(Hispanic)

Grade 2
to predict
Grade 3

IREAD3

2,152

 

0.48