FAST: CBMReading

English

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyfull bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate Low
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityfull bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Datafull bubble
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time1-5 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers™ (FAST) is online software that requires no hardware or special add-ons. FAST is supported by an extensive set of materials to support teachers and students, including self-directed training modules that allow teachers to become certified to administer each of the FAST assessments. The entire FAST assessment package (i.e., reading, math, behavior, and on-line training) is provided at an annual flat rate of $6 per student.

Testers will require less than 1 hours of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

Where to Obtain: http://www.fastbridge.org/

Address:

FastBridge Learning
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1057

Phone: 612-254-2534

Websitehttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Training materials are included in the cost of the tool.  Additional, optional on-site and webinar-based training services are available for a fee.

Ongoing technical support is available by calling 612-424-3710 or emailing fast1@umn.edu

CBMReading is a particular version of Curriculum Based Measurement of Oral Reading (CBM-R), which was originally developed to index the level and rate of reading achievement. The tool is an assessment for use to screen and monitor student progress in reading competency in primary grades (1-6). Students read aloud for one minute from grade – or instructional- level passages. The words read correct per minute (WRCM) functions as an indicator of a reading health and a sensitive indicator of intervention effects.   

The tool is intended for use in grades 1-6, with progress monitoring capabilities K-12, or with ages 5-10+.

Administration is computerized and is 1-5 minutes per student. Scoring is done automatically within the software and does not require any additional time.

There are 3 passages available for universal screening and 20 alternate forms per grade level (Grades 1-6) for frequent progress monitoring.

Available scores include: raw scores, local through national percentile scores, local through national growth norms, developmental benchmarks and cut points, accuracy rates and error analysis. 

 

Classification Accuracy

 

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on TOSREC 40th percentile

 

1st Grade

n = 167

2nd Grade

n = 190

3rd  Grade

n = 185

4th Grade

n = 174

5th Grade

n = 197

6th Grade

n =204

False Positive Rate

0.30

0.21

0.29

0.25

0.31

0.14

False Negative Rate

0.22

0.11

0.15

0.22

0.15

0.16

Sensitivity

0.78

0.89

0.85

0.78

0.85

0.84

Specificity

0.70

0.79

0.71

0.75

0.69

0.86

Positive Predictive Power

0.63

0.69

0.44

0.67

0.52

0.51

Negative Predictive Power

0.82

0.93

0.95

0.84

0.92

0.97

Overall Classification Rate

0.73

0.83

0.74

0.76

0.74

0.85

AUC (ROC)

0.83

0.91

0.88

0.83

0.85

0.93

Base Rate

0.40

0.35

0.21

0.39

0.28

0.15

Cut Points:

11.32

59.01

84.5

112.37

118.96

123.00

At 90% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

0.65

0.76

0.64

0.43

0.59

0.71

At 80% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

0.68

0.85

0.79

0.70

0.69

0.91

At 70% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

0.65

0.77

0.86

0.79

0.79

0.94

 

Grades 1-6 using the TOSREC and MAP (20th percentile and 30th percentile)                                                           

See table below for Diagnostic Accuracy by grade level

Grade Level

N

Cuta

AUC

Sens.

Spec.

Classif.

Lag Time

External Measure

20th Percentile

1

171

16.5

0.81

0.75

0.63

0.71

2 to 4

TOSREC

2

206

42.5

0.93

0.88

0.87

0.88

2 to 4

TOSREC

3

188

75.5

0.89

0.84

0.83

0.84

2 to 4

TOSREC

4

181

108.5

0.87

0.78

0.82

0.79

2 to 4

TOSREC

5

202

107.5

0.90

0.84

0.79

0.83

2 to 4

TOSREC

6

205

118.5

0.90

0.92

0.72

0.88

2 to 4

TOSREC

1

171

17

0.77

0.63

0.82

0.74

~ 4 months

MAP

2

206

57

0.82

0.63

0.85

0.76

~ 4 months

MAP

3

188

88

0.80

0.77

0.75

0.76

~ 4 months

MAP

4

181

113

0.88

0.82

0.81

0.81

~ 4 months

MAP

5

202

101

0.89

0.70

0.91

0.86

~ 4 months

MAP

6

205

126

0.89

0.83

0.82

0.82

~ 4 months

MAP

1

171

21

0.79

0.78

0.70

0.73

~8 months

MAP

2

206

63

0.82

0.83

0.68

0.72

~8 months

MAP

3

188

67

0.77

0.51

0.88

0.75

~8 months

MAP

4

181

104

0.89

0.80

0.86

0.84

~8 months

MAP

5

202

97

0.89

0.74

0.92

0.88

~8 months

MAP

6

205

126

0.89

0.85

0.82

0.83

~8 months

MAP

1

171

16

0.80

0.66

0.81

0.76

~1 year

MAP

2

206

82

0.90

0.87

0.84

0.86

~1 year

MAP

3

188

88

0.89

0.82

0.81

0.82

~1 year

MAP

4

181

114

0.87

0.83

0.76

0.78

~1 year

MAP

5

202

108

0.89

0.8

0.85

0.84

~1 year

MAP

6

205

126

0.85

0.77

0.79

0.79

~1 year

MAP

30th Percentile

1

171

16.5

0.81

0.75

0.63

0.71

2 to 4

TOSREC

2

206

44.5

0.94

0.91

0.83

0.89

2 to 4

TOSREC

3

188

79.5

0.88

0.83

0.83

0.83

2 to 4

TOSREC

4

181

117.5

0.83

0.73

0.79

0.75

2 to 4

TOSREC

5

202

115.5

0.87

0.79

0.77

0.79

2 to 4

TOSREC

6

205

135.5

0.88

0.76

0.82

0.78

2 to 4

TOSREC

1

171

31

0.78

0.84

0.57

0.74

~ 4 months

MAP

2

206

82

0.83

0.81

0.73

0.78

~ 4 months

MAP

3

188

85

0.77

0.57

0.86

0.66

~ 4 months

MAP

4

181

128

0.82

0.84

0.59

0.74

~ 4 months

MAP

5

202

125

0.82

0.65

0.75

0.69

~ 4 months

MAP

6

205

144

0.82

0.76

0.75

0.75

~ 4 months

MAP

1

171

24

0.78

0.74

0.7

0.73

~8 months

MAP

2

206

82

0.78

0.77

0.54

0.67

~8 months

MAP

3

188

98

0.8

0.82

0.65

0.76

~8 months

MAP

4

181

125

0.84

0.66

0.85

0.75

~8 months

MAP

5

202

128

0.86

0.80

0.73

0.76

~8 months

MAP

6

205

144

0.79

0.74

0.7

0.71

~8 months

MAP

1

171

22

0.83

0.76

0.77

0.76

~1 year

MAP

2

206

82

0.91

0.72

0.89

0.76

~1 year

MAP

3

188

104

0.85

0.63

0.92

0.71

~1 year

MAP

4

181

122

0.85

0.70

0.86

0.78

~1 year

MAP

5

202

135

0.82

0.77

0.68

0.73

~1 year

MAP

6

205

144

0.8

0.76

0.75

0.75

~1 year

MAP

                   

a Cut score was selected by optimizing sensitivity and then balancing it with specificity using methods presented by Silberglitt and Hintze (2005)

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

·         Number of States: 1 (Minnesota)

·         Size: 1,153

·         Regions: 3

·         Gender

o   45% Male

o   55% Female

·         SES: approximately 20% eligible for free or reduced-price lunch

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   52% White, Non-Hispanic

o   1% American Indian/Alaska Native

o   12% Black, Non-Hispanic

o   4% Asian, Pacific Islander

o   30% Hispanic

·         Disability status:

o   Approximately 15% Special Education

·         Language proficiency status: 100% English proficient

Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data) / Subjects

range

median

Alternate- Form Correlation – Passage Bundles (Average Fisher z-transformed Inter-Passage Correlations)

Passage Level A (Grade 1)

Grade 1- 206

Grade 2 – 21

Grade 3 – 4

Total - 231

# passages 39

# Weeks < 2

0.89 - 0.94

0.92

3.03

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Alternate- Form Correlation – Passage Bundles (Average Fisher z-transformed Inter-Passage Correlations)

Passage Level B (Grades 2 & 3)

Grade 1 – 138

Grade 2 – 179

Grade 3 – 126

Grade 4 – 32

Grade 5 – 13

Total - 488

# passages 60

# Weeks  <2

0.87 - 0.92

0.90

4.97

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Alternate- Form Correlation –  Passage Bundles (Average Fisher z-transformed Inter-Passage Correlations)

Passage Level C

(Grades 4-6)

 

Grade 1 – 3

Grade 2- 135

Grade 3 – 79

Grade 4 – 156

Grade 5 – 140

Total – 513

# passages 60

# Weeks < 2

0.92 - 0.95

0.94

7.06

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Item-Total Correlation

Passage Level A (Grade 1)

Grade 1- 206

Grade 2 – 21

Grade 3 – 4

Total - 231

# passages 60

# Weeks < 2

0.91 - 0.92

0.92

 

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Item-Total Correlation

Passage Level B (Grades 2 & 3)

Grade 1 – 138

Grade 2 – 179

Grade 3 – 126

Grade 4 – 32

Grade 5 – 13

Total - 488

# passages 60

# Weeks < 2

0.89 - 0.91

.90

 

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Item-Total Correlation

Passage Level C

(Grades 4-6)

 

Grade 1 – 3

Grade 2- 135

Grade 3 – 79

Grade 4 – 156

Grade 5 – 140

Total – 513

# passages 60

# Weeks < 2

0.88 - 0.93

0.91

 

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 1

N = 386

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~12

 

0.90

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 2

N = 369

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~12

 

0.92

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 3

N = 394

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 12

 

0.92

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 4

N = 396

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 12

 

0.89

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 5

N = 395

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 12

 

0.94

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 6

N = 220

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 12

 

0.94

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 1

N = 384

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.82

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 2

N = 367

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.89

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 3

N = 383

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.90

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 4

N = 388

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.93

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 5

N = 388

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.93

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 6

N = 436

 

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.92

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Inter-Rater

Passage Level A; Grade 1

146

0.83 – 1.00

0.97

 

Information based on all three sites (MN, NY, & GA)

Inter-Rater

Passage Level B: Grades 2 and 3

 

1,391

0.93 – 0.97

0.97

 

Information based on all three sites (MN, NY, & GA)

Inter-Rater

Passage Level C: Grades 4-6

1,345

0.83 – 1.00

0.98

 

Information based on all three sites (MN, NY, & GA)

 

Validity

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient

Information (including normative data) / Subjects

Concurrent

Grade 1

(n = 218)

Test of silent reading efficiency and comprehension (TOSREC)

 

0.86 (95% CI = 0.82 - 0.89)

Information based on all three sites (MN, NY, & GA)

Concurrent

Grade 2 (n=246)

 

 

0.81 (95% CI = 0.77 - 0.85)

Concurrent

Grade 3 (n=233)

 

 

0.81 (95% CI = 0.76 - 0.85)

Concurrent

Grade 4 (n=228)

 

 

0.79 (95% CI = 0.74 - 0.84)

Concurrent

Grade 5

(n = 244)

 

 

0.81 (95% CI = 0.76 -0.85)

Concurrent

Grade 6

(n = 222)

 

 

0.82 (95% CI = 0.77 - 0.86)

Concurrent

Grade 1

 (n = 399)

DIBELS NEXT oral reading fluency measure

 

0.95 (95% CI = 0.94 - 0.96)

Concurrent

Grade 2

(n = 463)

 

 

0.92 (95% CI = 0.90 - 0.93)

Concurrent

Grade 3

(n = 483)

 

 

0.96 (95% CI = 0.95 - 0.97)

Concurrent

Grade 4

(n = 485)

 

 

0.95 (95% CI = 0.94 - 0.96)

Concurrent

Grade 5

(n = 503)

 

 

0.95 (95% CI = 0.95 - 0.96)

Concurrent

Grade 6

(n = 225)

 

 

0.95 (95% CI = 0.94 - 0.96)

Concurrent

Grade 1

(n = 399)

AIMSweb R-CBM Measure

 

0.95 (95% CI = 0.94 -0.96)

Concurrent

Grade 2

(n = 425)

 

 

0.97 (95% CI = 0.96 - 0.98)

Concurrent

Grade 3

(n = 402)

 

 

0.95 (95% CI = 0.95 - 0.96)

Concurrent

Grade 4

 (n = 445)

 

 

0.96 (95% CI = 0.96 - 0.97)

Concurrent

Grade 5

 (n = 447)

 

 

0.96 (95% CI = 0.95 - 0.97)

Concurrent

Grade 6

(n = 229)

 

 

0.95 (95% CI = 0.93 - 0.96)

Concurrent

Grade 2

(n = 237)

Measures of Academic Progress (MAP)

 

0.81 (95% CI = 0.77 - 0.85)

Concurrent

Grade 3

(n = 231)

 

 

0.78 (95% CI = 0.72 - 0.82)

Concurrent

Grade 4

(n = 233)

 

 

0.73 (95% CI = 0.67 - 0.79)

Concurrent

Grade 5 (n= 219)

 

 

0.66 (95% CI = 0.58 - 0.73)

Concurrent

Grade 6 (n= 212)

 

 

0.69 (95% CI = 0.61 - 0.75)

Concurrent

Grade 3

MN Comprehensive Assessment III (MCA-III)

852

0.76

MN

Concurrent

Grade 4

MCA-III

818

0.71

MN

Concurrent

Grade 5

MCA-III

771

0.70

MN

Predictive

Grade 1

(n = 385)

AIMSweb

M = 18.68 Weeks

(SD = 3.04)

0.91 (95% CI = 0.89 - 0.93)

 

Predictive

Grade 2

(n = 413)

 

M = 18.56 Weeks

(SD= 2.44)

0.93 (95% CI = 0.92 -0.94)

 

Predictive

Grade 3

(n = 391)

 

M = 18.98 Weeks

(SD = 2.50)

0.91 (95% CI = 0.89 - 0.93)

 

Predictive

Grade 4

(n = 427)

 

M = 19 Weeks

(SD = 2.32)

0.94 (95% CI = 0.93 - 0.95)

 

Predictive

Grade 5

(n = 431)

 

M = 19 Weeks

(SD = 2.51)

0.93 (95% CI = 0.91 - 0.94)

 

Predictive

Grade 6

(n = 220)

 

M  = 17.45 Weeks (SD = .86)

0.94 (95% CI = 0.92 - 0.95)

 

Predictive

Grade 1

(n = 425)

DIBELS NEXT

M  = 35.57 Weeks (SD = 2.02)

0.82 (95% CI = 0.79 - 0.85)

 

Predictive

Grade 2 (n = 80)

 

M = 35.93 Weeks (SD = 1.61)

0.74 (95% CI = 0.62 - 0.82)

 

Predictive

Grade 3

(n = 76)

 

M = 35.79 Weeks (SD = 1.47)

0.91 (95% CI = 0.86 - 0.94)

 

Predictive

Grade 4

 (n = 74)

 

M = 35.67 Weeks

 (SD = 1.41)

0.90 (95% CI = 0.85 - 0.94)

 

Predictive

Grade 5

 (n = 85)

 

M = 35.67 Weeks

 (SD = 1.41)

0.93 (95% CI = 0.89 - 0.95)

 

Predictive

Grade 1

 (n = 44)

TOSREC

M = 35.57 Weeks

(SD = 2.02)

0.47 (95% CI 0.21 - 0.67)

 

Predictive

Grade 2

 (n = 35

 

M = 35.94 Weeks (SD  = 1.61)

0.56 (95% CI = 0.29 - 0.75)

 

Predictive

Grade 3

(n = 33)

 

M = 35.79 Weeks (SD = 1.48)

0.69 (95% CI = 0.46 - 0.83)

 

Predictive

Grade 4

 (n = 35)

 

M = 35.67 Weeks (SD = 1.41)

0.52 (95% CI = 0.24 - 0.73)

 

Predictive

Grade 6

(n = 18)

 

M= 35.06 Weeks (SD= .96)

0.87 (95% CI = 0.68 - 0.95)

 

Predictive

Grade 2

 (n = 240)

MAP

M = 35.23 Weeks

(SD = 1.42)

0.76 (95% CI = 0.70 - 0.81)

 

Predictive

Grade 3

 (n = 233

 

M = 35.47 Weeks

(SD = 1.27)

0.73 (95% CI = 0.67 - 0.79)

 

Predictive

Grade 4

(n = 235)

 

M = 35.23 Weeks (SD = .88)

0.69 (95% CI = 0.62 - 0.75)

 

Predictive

Grade 5

 (n = 220)

 

M= 35.29 Weeks (SD= 1.13)

0.65 (95% CI = 0.57 - 0.72)

 

Predictive

Grade 6

(n = 212

 

M= 35.06 Weeks (SD = .96)

0.71 (95% CI = 0.63 - 0.77)

 

 

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Disaggregated Classification Accuracy

The sample for the following analyses consisted of 2,447 students in third through fifth grade from eight schools in the Midwest. In the sample, 848 students were in third, 814 students were in fourth, and 785 students were in fifth grade. Gender of the sample was 50.2% male and 49.8% female. Ethnic breakdown was 44.3% White, 24.1% Black, 7.3% Asian/Pacific Islander, 14.9% Hispanic, 0.8% American Indian or Alaska Native, and 8.6% multiracial. In addition, approximately 12.5% of students were receiving special education services. Socioeconomic status information was not available for the sample, but the schools the students were drawn from had rates of free and reduced lunch ranging from 16.1% to 83% in 2013.

Students were administered the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment III (MCA-III) in Reading in grades 3, 4, and 5. The MCAs are state tests that help school districts measure student progress toward Minnesota’s academic standards and meet the requirements of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Additionally, students completed three FAST CBM-Reading probes during the Spring. The median score was computed. Only those students providing complete data were utilized in the diagnostic accuracy analyses. More specifically, students with incomplete data regarding CBM-R Words Read Correctly (WRC) per minute, or those students with incomplete MCA-III Achievement Level Scores were excluded from analyses.  ROC Analysis was used to determine diagnostic accuracy of FAST CBM-Reading probes with Spring MCA-III scale scores serving as the criterion measure. Students were disaggregated by grade level. Diagnostic accuracy was computed for students identified as being at “High Risk” and those identified as “Somewhat at Risk” for reading difficulties using MCA-III Achievement Level Criteria. Students identified as “Somewhat at Risk” were those that either partially met MCA achievement level standards, or did not meet standards. Students identified as at “High Risk” were those that did not meet MCA achievement level standards.

Since the analyses regarding disaggregated data consisted of a relatively small subgroup of all CBM-Reading data that is available, the following information is summarized in the table below. In other words, analyses conducted for disaggregated data were performed on a sample disparate from evidence provided in 1a of the current submission.

 

See table below for Diagnostic Accuracy by grade level, and by ethnicity

Grade

N

Cuta

AUC

Sens.

Spec.

Class.

Ethnicity

Criterion

20th Percentile

3

196

122.5

0.89

0.80

0.80

0.76

Black

MCA

3

369

131.5

0.90

0.81

0.81

0.88

White

MCA

3

54

129.0

0.96

0.91

0.88

0.76

Asian

MCA

3

132

119.5

0.87

0.78

0.78

0.76

Hispanic

MCA

3

97

138.0

0.77

0.71

0.67

0.80

Multiracial

MCA

40th Percentile

3

196

137.5

0.86

0.76

0.74

0.40

Black

MCA

3

369

144.5

0.86

0.77

0.76

0.73

White

MCA

3

54

148.0

0.92

0.87

0.80

0.50

Asian

MCA

3

132

141.0

0.80

0.71

0.71

0.46

Hispanic

MCA

3

97

146.5

0.80

0.71

0.70

0.61

Multiracial

MCA

 

 

Grade

N

Cuta

AUC

Sens.

Spec.

Class.

Ethnicity

Criterion

20th Percentile

4

188

148.5

0.86

0.77

0.76

0.61

Black

MCA

4

370

156.5

0.86

0.80

0.76

0.86

White

MCA

4

60

154.5

0.85

0.76

0.77

0.67

Asian

MCA

4

122

152.0

0.85

0.78

0.77

0.68

Hispanic

MCA

4

74

154.5

0.92

0.82

0.79

0.84

Multiracial

MCA

40th Percentile

4

188

163.5

0.82

0.74

0.74

0.41

Black

MCA

4

370

166.5

0.80

0.72

0.72

0.67

White

MCA

4

60

167.0

0.89

0.80

0.80

0.52

Asian

MCA

4

122

168.5

0.85

0.75

0.74

0.45

Hispanic

MCA

4

74

164.5

0.82

0.75

0.74

0.62

Multiracial

MCA

 

 

Grade

N

Cuta

AUC

Sens.

Spec.

Class.

Ethnicity

Criterion

20th Percentile

5

211

150.5

0.76

0.71

0.71

0.68

Black

MCA

5

355

154.0

0.92

0.83

0.84

0.93

White

MCA

5

67

167.5

0.79

0.73

0.66

0.87

Asian

MCA

5

112

147.5

0.81

0.76

0.76

0.68

Hispanic

MCA

5

40

153.5

0.91

0.83

0.79

0.80

Multiracial

MCA

40th Percentile

5

211

159

0.79

0.73

0.73

0.45

Black

MCA

5

355

168.5

0.85

0.76

0.75

0.85

White

MCA

5

67

173

0.76

0.72

0.54

0.61

Asian

MCA

5

112

154.5

0.80

0.70

0.72

0.51

Hispanic

MCA

5

40

154.5

0.78

0.73

0.72

0.70

Multiracial

MCA

 

 

Disaggregated Reliability Data

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Delayed Test-Retest

Grade 2 (n = 1,518)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.91 - 0.92

0.91

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 2 (n = 369)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.90 - 0.94

0.92

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 2 (n = 210)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.92 - 0.95

0.94

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 2 (n = 308)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.91 - 0.94

0.93

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 3 (n =1,439)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.91 - 0.92

0.92

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade  3 (n = 442)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.90 - 0.93

0.91

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 3 (n = 197)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.87 - 0.92

0.90

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 3 (n = 314)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.91 - 0.94

0.93

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 4 (n = 1,384)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.88 - 0.91

0.90

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 4 (n = 353)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.89 - 0.92

0.91

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 4 (n = 204)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.89 - 0.94

0.92

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 4 (n = 268)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.87 - 0.92

0.90

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 5 (n = 1,309)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.91 - 0.93

0.92

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 5 (n = 378)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.91 - 0.94

0.93

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 5 (n = 205)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.89 - 0.93

0.91

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 5 (n = 247)

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

0.91 - 0.95

0.93

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 2 (n = 1,518)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.83 - 0.86

0.85

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 2 (n = 369)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.75 - 0.83

0.79

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 2 (n = 210)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.81 - 0.88

0.85

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 2 (n = 308)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.76 - 0.84

0.80

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 3 (n =1,439)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.88 - 0.90

0.89

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade  3 (n = 442)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.82 - 0.87

0.85

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 3 (n = 197)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.80 - 0.88

0.84

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 3 (n = 314)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.80 - 0.87

0.84

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 4 (n = 1,384)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.85 - 0.88

0.87

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 4 (n = 353)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.82 - 0.88

0.85

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 4 (n = 204)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.80 -0.88

0.85

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 4 (n = 268)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.81 - 0.88

0.85

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 5 (n = 1309)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.87 - 0.90

0.88

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 5 (n = 378)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.77 - 0.84

0.81

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 5 (n = 205)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.83 - 0.89

0.86

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Grade 5 (n = 247)

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

0.84 - 0.90

0.87

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN