FAST: earlyReading English

Concepts of Print

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyhalf bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate Low
Reliabilityempty bubble
Validityhalf bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity DataN A
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time1.5-2.5 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers™ (FAST) is online software that requires no hardware or special add-ons. FAST is supported by an extensive set of materials to support teachers and students, including self-directed training modules that allow teachers to become certified to administer each of the FAST assessments. The entire FAST assessment package (i.e., reading, math, behavior, and on-line training) is provided at an annual flat rate of $6 per student.

Testers will require 1-4 hours of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

Where to Obtain:  http://www.fastbridge.org/

Address:

FastBridge Learning
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1057

Phone: 612-254-2534

Websitehttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Training materials are included in the cost of the tool.  Additional, optional on-site and webinar-based training services are available for a fee.

Ongoing technical support is available by calling 612-424-3710 or emailing fast1@umn.edu

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers (FAST) earlyReading measure is designed to assess both unified and component skills associated with kindergarten and first grade reading achievement. earlyReading is intended to enable screening and progress monitoring across four domains of reading (Concepts of Print, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Decoding) and provide domain specific assessments of these specific component skills and a general estimate of overall reading achievement.

The objective of the Concepts of Print measure is to determine the student’s understanding of how print works and how it is used in typical reading and literacy contexts. To do this, the measure asks the student to identify and distinguish between letters, words, numbers, and shapes as well as where to begin reading and how to track text during reading. It also includes a section on distinguishing between the number of letters in a written word and the difference this makes in their spoken (aural) form (e.g., mail vs. mailbox).

The tool is intended for use in Kindergarten or with ages 5-7.

Administration is computerized and is 1.5-2.5 minutes per student. Scoring is done automatically within the software and does not require any additional time.

Available scores include: raw scores, percentile scores, developmental benchmarks and cut points, subscale/subtest scores, composite scores, and error analysis.

 

Classification Accuracy

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on GRADE for Kindergarten (Fall)

 

15th Percentile

n = 214

40th Percentile

n = 214

False Positive Rate

0.29

0.35

False Negative Rate

0.24

0.25

Sensitivity

0.76

0.75

Specificity

0.71

0.65

Positive Predictive Power

0.18

0.46

Negative Predictive Power

0.97

0.87

Overall Classification Rate

0.71

0.68

AUC (ROC)

0.82

0.74

Base Rate

0.08

0.29

Cut Points:

7

8

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

100% sensitivity, 0.50 specificity

n/a

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

80% sensitivity, 0.82 specificity

74% sensitivity, 0.69 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

60% sensitivity, 0.90 specificity

58% sensitivity, 0.79 specificity

 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

·         Number of States: 1 (Minnesota)

·         Regions: 1

·         Gender

o   47% Male

o   53% Female

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   65% White, Non-Hispanic

o   0% American Indian/Alaska Native

o   23% Black, Non-Hispanic

o   0% Asian, Pacific Islander

o   6% Hispanic

o   3% Other

·         Disability status:  approximately 11% SWDs

·         First language: approximately 90% English

·         Language proficiency status: 100% English proficient 

Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Test-Retest Reliability (2-3 week delay)

Kindergarten

38

 

0.41*

 

Participants included 85 Kindergarten and 71 first grade students from two elementary schools in a metropolitan area in the Midwest. Kindergarten students who participated in the study were enrolled in all day kindergarten at two different elementary schools within the same school district.

Test-Retest Reliability (Fall to Winter

Kindergarten

 

89

 

0.66

 

Participants included 85 Kindergarten and 71 first grade students from two elementary schools in a metropolitan area in the Midwest. Kindergarten students who participated in the study were enrolled in all day kindergarten at two different elementary schools within the same school district.

Test-Retest Reliability (Winter to Spring)

Kindergarten

90

 

0.58

 

Participants included 85 Kindergarten and 71 first grade students from two elementary schools in a metropolitan area in the Midwest. Kindergarten students who participated in the study were enrolled in all day kindergarten at two different elementary schools within the same school district.

Test-Retest Reliability(Fall to Spring)

Kindergarten

168

 

0.51

 

Participants included 85 Kindergarten and 71 first grade students from two elementary schools in a metropolitan area in the Midwest. Kindergarten students who participated in the study were enrolled in all day kindergarten at two different elementary schools within the same school district.

Coefficient α K 336   0.75   Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 47% of students were female and 53% were male. Approximately 45.2% of students were White, 21.7% Black, 17% Hispanic, 8% Multiracial, 5.1% Asian, and 3% American Indian or Alaska Native.
Split-half K 336   0.76   Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 47% of students were female and 53% were male. Approximately 45.2% of students were White, 21.7% Black, 17% Hispanic, 8% Multiracial, 5.1% Asian, and 3% American Indian or Alaska Native.
Delayed test-retest 1st 46   0.87   Winter to Spring data collection
Delayed test-retest K 3,727   0.54   Fall to Winter data collection
Delayed test-retest K 22   0.78   Winter to Spring data collection

*Outliers that were +/- 2 standard deviations from the mean were removed from the test-retest reliability sample. In this instance 1 case, making up 3% of the sample, was removed.

Validity

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Discriminant (beginning)

K

Concepts of Print

204

Difference stats:

t = 30.24

d = 2.88

 

 

Concurrent validity

K

aReading

1376

0.55

Fall data collection

Predictive validity

K

aReading

453

0.58

Fall to winter data collection

Predictive validity

K

aReading

3558

0.52

Fall to spring data collection

Concurrent

K

AIMSweb

Letter Names

 

0.94

See below.

Concurrent

K

AIMSweb

Phoneme Segmentation

 

1.17*

See below.

Concurrent

K

AIMSweb

Letter Sounds

 

0.77

See below.

Concurrent

K

AIMSweb

Nonsense Words

 

0.84

See below.

Concurrent

K

DIBELS Next

First Sound Fluency

 

0.93

See below.

Predictive

K

AIMSweb

Letter Names

141

0.82

Fall to Winter

Predictive

K

AIMSweb

Phoneme Segmentation

140

0.93

Fall to Winter

Predictive

K

AIMSweb

Nonsense Words

140

0.72

Fall to Winter

Predictive

K

DIBELS Next

First Sound Fluency

135

0.72

Fall Winter

*Correlations disattenuated based on reported reliabilities.

The following information provides details regarding the criterion measures used in the analyses summarized above.

AIMSweb Letter Names requires students to read letter names aloud for one minute.  The score is the correct number of letter names a student can read per minute.

AIMSweb phoneme segmentation requires students to listen to a word and respond with all of the sounds, or phonemes, in the word.  The score is the correct number of sounds identified per minute.

AIMSweb Letter Sounds requires students to read letter sounds aloud for one minute. The score is the correct number of letter sounds a student can read per minute.

AIMSweb Nonsense Word Fluency requires students to read short CVC or VC non-words.  The two scores are the correct number of sounds per minute and the correct number of words per minute.

DIBELS Next First Sound Fluency requires students to listen to words and provide the initial sound in the word.  The score is the number of correct sounds per minute.

The earlyReading validity evidence study coefficients were derived from a sample of approximately 140 students each in Kindergarten and First Grade. Approximately 47% of students were female. Reported races of students were White (59%), Hispanic (9%), Black (12%), American Indian (1%), and Asian/Pacific Islander (18%).  Approximately 21% of students were English Language Learners, 32% were eligible for free or reduced lunch, and 9% received special education services.