FAST: earlyReading English

Decodable Words

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyfull bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate Low
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityfull bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Datafull bubble
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time1-2 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers™ (FAST) is online software that requires no hardware or special add-ons. FAST is supported by an extensive set of materials to support teachers and students, including self-directed training modules that allow teachers to become certified to administer each of the FAST assessments. The entire FAST assessment package (i.e., reading, math, behavior, and on-line training) is provided at an annual flat rate of $6 per student.

Testers will require 1-4 hours of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

Where to Obtainhttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Address:

FastBridge Learning
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1057

Phone: 612-254-2534

Website: http://www.fastbridge.org/

Training materials are included in the cost of the tool.  Additional, optional on-site and webinar-based training services are available for a fee.

Ongoing technical support is available by calling 612-424-3710 or emailing fast1@umn.edu

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers (FAST) earlyReading measure is designed to assess both unified and component skills associated with kindergarten and first grade reading achievement.

earlyReading is intended to enable screening and progress monitoring across four domains of reading (Concepts of Print, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Decoding) and provide domain specific assessments of these specific component skills and a general estimate of overall reading achievement.

The Decodable Words task assesses the student’s ability to read phonetically regular words. As the student becomes fluent with letter-sound correspondence, he or she will move from saying the sound of each letter to the goal of reading whole words. The examiner and student each have the same page of words. As the student says the sounds or reads the words, the examiner marks errors on his/her own copy. The resulting scores are 1) the number of letter-sounds correctly identified and 2) the number of whole words read correctly.

The tool is intended for use in K-1 or with ages 5-7.

Administration is computerized and is 1-2 minutes per student. Scoring is done automatically within the software and does not require any additional time.

Available scores include: raw scores, percentile scores, developmental benchmarks and cut points, subscale/subtest scores, composite scores, and error analysis.

 

Classification Accuracy

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on GRADE (Spring)

 

Kindergarten

(15th Percentile)

n = 215

Kindergarten

(40th Percentile)

n = 215

1st Grade

(15th Percentile)

n = 180

1st Grade

(40th Percentile)

n = 180

False Positive Rate

0.13

0.32

0.18

0.11

False Negative Rate

0.22

0.28

0.18

0.16

Sensitivity

0.78

0.72

0.82

0.84

Specificity

0.87

0.68

0.82

0.89

Positive Predictive Power

0.35

0.46

0.23

0.60

Negative Predictive Power

0.98

0.86

0.99

0.96

Overall Classification Rate

0.86

0.69

0.82

0.88

AUC (ROC)

0.90

0.77

0.93

0.96

Base Rate

0.08

0.28

0.06

0.17

Cut Points:

3

9

22

24

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

89% sensitivity, 0.79 specificity

n/a

91% sensitivity, 0.80 specificity

97% sensitivity, 0.85 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

78% sensitivity, 0.87 specificity

78% sensitivity, 0.54 specificity

82% sensitivity, 0.91 specificity

81% sensitivity, 0.90 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

67% sensitivity, 0.90 specificity

68% sensitivity, 0.73 specificity

73% sensitivity, 0.91 specificity

71% sensitivity, 0.95 specificity

 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

·         Number of States: 1 (Minnesota)

·         Regions: 1

·         Gender

o   47% Male

o   53% Female

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   65% White, Non-Hispanic

o   0% American Indian/Alaska Native

o   23% Black, Non-Hispanic

o   0% Asian, Pacific Islander

o   6% Hispanic

o   3% Other

·         Disability status: approximately 11% SWDs

·         First language: approximately  90% English

·         Language proficiency status: 100% English proficient

Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Alternate Form

K

29

0.96-0.98

0.97

2.93

 

Alternate Form

1st

36-37

0.97-0.98

0.98

2.98

 

Test-Retest

K

29

0.96-0.99

0.98

2.12

Collected in Fall 2012, ~2-3 week delay

Test Retest

1

33

 

0.97*

 

Collected in Fall 2012, ~2-3 week delay

Delayed Test Retest

K

56

0.53-0.81

0.70

-

Fall-Winter

Delayed Test Retest

K

168

 

0.68

-

Winter-Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

2,152

0.78-0.81

0.80

-

Fall-Winter

Delayed Test-Retest

1

604

 

0.84

 

Winter-Spring

Delayed Test-Retest

1

1,194

 

0.69

 

Fall-Spring

Coefficient alpha

K-1

434

-

0.76 for first 6 items

 

0.95 for first 23 items

 

0.98 for first 40 items

 

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. The sample consisted of 55.8% male students and 44.2% female students. Approximately 51.4% of the sample was White, 19.6% Black, 14.5% Hispanic, 10.4% Asian, 2.5% Multiracial, and 1.6% American Indian or Alaska Native.

Split-half

K-1

434

 

0.75 for first 6 items

 

0.96 for first 23 items

 

0.98 for first 40 items

 

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. The sample consisted of 55.8% male students and 44.2% female students. Approximately 51.4% of the sample was White, 19.6% Black, 14.5% Hispanic, 10.4% Asian, 2.5% Multiracial, and 1.6% American Indian or Alaska Native.

 

Validity

 

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

 

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient (if applicable)

 

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

Median

Concurrent

K

GRADE Level K

214

 

0.27

Participants included kindergarten students from two school districts. In School District 1 three elementary schools participated. Kindergarten students from District 1 who participated in the study were enrolled in all day or half day kindergarten. The majority of students within the school district were White (78%), with the remaining students identified as either African American (19%), or other (3%). In school District 2, the majority of students within the school district are White (53%), with the remaining students identified as African American (26%), Hispanic (11%), Asian (8%), or other (2%).

 

Concurrent

1st

GRADE Level K

71

 

0.22

See Above Comment

Predictive

1st

GRADE Level 1

179

 

0.59

See Above Comment

Predictive

1st

GRADE Level 1

168

 

0.78

See Above Comment

Concurrent

1st

GRADE Level 1

124

 

0.46

See Above Comment

Discriminant

K

 

184

 

Difference Stats:

t = 17.29

d = 1.62

 

Discriminant Validity (beginning)

1st Grade

 

256

 

t = 19.28

d = 1.58

 

Discriminant Validity (middle)

1st Grade

 

265

 

t = 32.17

d = 2.59

 

Discriminant Validity (end)

1st Grade

 

262

 

t = 32.9

d = 2.59

 

Concurrent Validity

KG

aReading

40

 

0.70

The sample consisted of approximately 118 KG students (42.9% female). The majority of students (76.7%) were not eligible to receive special education services. Data collected in the Spring.

Concurrent Validity

1st

CBMReading WRC/min

106

 

0.90

The sample consisted of approximately 145 First Grade students (45.3% female). The majority of students (79.7%) were not eligible to receive special education services. The majority of students were White (64.2%) followed by 20.9% Hispanic, 5.4% African American, and 4.1% Asian. Data collected in the Winter.

Predictive Validity

1st

CBMReading WRC/min

122

 

0.84

The sample consisted of approximately 145 First Grade students (45.3% female). The majority of students (79.7%) were not eligible to receive special education services. The majority of students were White (64.2%) followed by 20.9% Hispanic, 5.4% African American, and 4.1% Asian. Winter to Spring prediction.

Concurrent Validity

1st

aReading

124

 

0.71

The sample consisted of approximately 145 First Grade students (45.3% female). The majority of students (79.7%) were not eligible to receive special education services. The majority of students were White (64.2%) followed by 20.9% Hispanic, 5.4% African American, and 4.1% Asian. Data collected during the Spring.

Concurrent Validity

1st

CBMReading WRC/min

125

 

0.89

The sample consisted of approximately 145 First Grade students (45.3% female). The majority of students (79.7%) were not eligible to receive special education services. The majority of students were White (64.2%) followed by 20.9% Hispanic, 5.4% African American, and 4.1% Asian. Data collected in the Spring.

Predictive Validity

1st

GRADE Standard Score

161

 

0.72

The sample consisted of approximately 184 First Grade students. Winter to Spring prediction.

Construct and content validity depend substantially on the development and selection of stimuli. See below for a description of the content.

Decodable Words
The Decodable Words task assesses the student’s ability to read phonetically regular words. As the student becomes fluent with letter-sound correspondence, s/he will move from saying the sound of each letter to the goal of reading whole words. The examiner and student each have the same page of words. As the student says the sounds or reads the words, the examiner marks errors on his/her own copy. The resulting scores are 1) the number of letter-sounds correctly identified and 2) the number of whole words read correctly.

Test Construction. A word bank containing 184 consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) real words was created. The first 15-20 words of each progress monitoring form contained words with unique initial sounds in random order. The remaining 30-35 words were randomly selected from the word bank, for a total of 50 words per form.  All words on each form were unique. Each form was organized with ten rows with five words in each row.

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Disaggregated Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on CBMReading (Curriculum Based Measures of Reading)

  Grade 1
W->W
15th Percentile
Non-White
n = 53
Grade 1
W->W
15th Percentile
White
​n = 95
Grade 1
W->W
40th Percentile
Non-White
​n = 53
Grade 1
W->W
40th Percentile
White
​n = 95
Grade 1
W->S
15th Percentile
Non-White
​n = 53
Grade 1
W->S
15th Percentile
White
​n = 95
Grade 1
W->S
40th Percentile
Non-White
​n = 53
Grade 1
W->S
40th Percentile
White
​n = 95
Grade 1
S->S
15th Percentile
Non-White
​n = 53
Grade 1
S->S
15th Percentile
White
​n = 95
Grade 1
S->S
40th Percentile
Non-White
​n = 53
Grade 1
S->S
40th Percentile
White
​n = 95

False Positive Rate

0.03

0.15

0.16

0.13

0.04

0.11

0.12

0.10

0

0.05

0.04

0.02

False Negative Rate

0.31

0.07

0.29

0.04

0.09

0.05

0.40

0.17

0.18

0.26

0.50

0.34

Sensitivity

0.69

0.93

0.71

0.96

0.91

0.95

0.61

0.83

0.82

0.74

0.50

0.66

Specificity

0.97

0.85

0.84

0.87

0.95

0.89

0.88

0.90

1.00

0.95

0.96

0.98

Positive Predictive Power

0.92

0.54

0.75

0.74

0.83

0.69

0.85

0.83

1.00

0.78

0.93

0.96

Negative Predictive Power

0.88

0.99

0.82

0.98

0.98

0.99

0.67

0.90

0.95

0.94

0.63

0.83

Overall Classification Rate

0.87

0.86

0.79

0.89

0.94

0.91

0.74

0.87

0.96

0.91

0.72

0.86

AUC (ROC)

0.87

0.91

0.87

0.96

0.94

0.94

0.89

0.90

0.99

0.97

0.90

0.96

Base Rate

0.30

0.16

0.40

0.28

0.21

0.20

0.53

0.37

0.21

0.20

0.53

0.37

Cut Points:

12.5

11

16

12.5

11.5

13.5

17.5

16.5

20.5

23.5

29.5

31.5

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

94% sensitivity, 0.52 specificity

93% sensitivity, 0.82 specificity

95% sensitivity, 0.65 specificity

92% sensitivity, 0.89 specificity

91% sensitivity, 0.97 specificity

95% sensitivity, 0.87 specificity

93% sensitivity, 0.71 specificity

91% sensitivity, 0.81 specificity

91% sensitivity, 0.93 specificity

95% sensitivity, 0.91 specificity

93% sensitivity, 0.71 specificity

91% sensitivity, 0.85 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

88% sensitivity, 0.64 specificity

73% sensitivity, 0.87 specificity

85% sensitivity, 0.75 specificity

85% sensitivity, 0.93 specificity

82% sensitivity, 0.97 specificity

79% sensitivity, 0.93 specificity

86% sensitivity, 0.71 specificity

83% sensitivity, 0.87 specificity

82% sensitivity, 1.00 specificity

84% sensitivity, 0.92 specificity

82% sensitivity, 0.86 specificity

80% sensitivity, 0.98 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

75% sensitivity, 0.80 specificity

53% sensitivity, 0.91 specificity

71% sensitivity, 0.80 specificity

69% sensitivity, 0.96 specificity

64% sensitivity, 0.97 specificity

53% sensitivity, 0.94 specificity

74% sensitivity, 0.79 specificity

71% sensitivity, 0.90 specificity

73% sensitivity, 1.00 specificity

74% sensitivity, 0.94 specificity

71% sensitivity, 0.93 specificity

71% sensitivity, 0.98 specificity

 

Disaggregated Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on aReading (Adaptive Reading)

  Grade 1
W->W
40th Percentile
Non-White
n = 53
Grade 1
W->W
40th Percentile
White
​n = 95
Grade 1
W->S
15th Percentile
Non-White
​n = 53
Grade 1
W->S
15th Percentile
White
​n = 95
Grade 1
S->S
15th Percentile
Non-White
​n = 53
Grade 1
S->S
15th Percentile
White
​n = 95
Grade 1
S->S
40th Percentile
Non-White
​n = 53
Grade 1
S->S
40th Percentile
White
​n = 95

False Positive Rate

0.11

0.17

0.03

0.18

0

0.12

0.04

0.02

False Negative Rate

0.47

0.43

0.50

0.38

0.59

0.57

0.53

0.51

Sensitivity

0.53

0.57

0.50

0.62

0.41

0.43

0.47

0.49

Specificity

0.89

0.83

0.97

0.82

1.00

0.88

0.96

0.98

Positive Predictive Power

0.90

0.77

0.92

0.50

1.00

0.50

0.93

0.96

Negative Predictive Power

0.52

0.67

0.73

0.88

0.70

0.84

0.58

0.66

Overall Classification Rate

0.66

0.71

0.77

0.78

0.75

0.78

0.69

0.74

AUC (ROC)

0.93

0.82

0.85

0.88

0.93

0.90

0.86

0.92

Base Rate

0.64

0.49

0.42

0.22

0.42

0.22

0.57

0.49

Cut Points:

18.5

18.5

16

11

25.5

17.5

29.5

34

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

93% sensitivity, 0.85 specificity

90% sensitivity, 0.56 specificity

91% sensitivity, 0.60 specificity

94% sensitivity, 0.71 specificity

95% sensitivity, 0.86 specificity

93% sensitivity, 0.78 specificity

93% sensitivity, 0.36 specificity

90% sensitivity, 0.70 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

89% sensitivity, 0.85 specificity

83% sensitivity, 0.77 specificity

76% sensitivity, 0.65 specificity

88% sensitivity, 0.80 specificity

81% sensitivity, 0.86 specificity

80% sensitivity, 0.85 specificity

82% sensitivity, 0.85 specificity

80% sensitivity, 0.93 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

75% sensitivity, 0.85 specificity

73% sensitivity, 0.81 specificity

71% sensitivity, 0.80 specificity

71% sensitivity, 0.88 specificity

76% sensitivity, 0.86 specificity

73% sensitivity, 0.85 specificity

71% sensitivity, 0.93 specificity

70% sensitivity, 0.98 specificity

 

Disaggregated Reliability

 

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Delayed Test Retest

1

375

0.77-0.84

0.80

-

African American students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

260

0.69-0.80

0.75

-

Hispanic/Latino students 

 – Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

1,220

0.77-0.81

0.79

-

White/Caucasian students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

206

0.65-0.78

0.73

-

African American students

– Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

138

0.51-0.72

0.63

-

Hispanic/Latino students

 – Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

707

0.63-0.71

0.67

-

White/Caucasian students

 – Fall to Spring

 

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient Range

Coefficient Median

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Delayed test-retest reliability

1st Grade

41

 

0.91

 

Non-White students; Winter to Spring data collection

Delayed test-retest reliability

1st Grade

83

 

0.89

 

White students; Winter to Spring data collection

Delayed test retest reliability

1st

23

 

0.71

 

Native American students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest reliability

1st

144

 

0.88

 

Asian students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest reliability

1st

136

 

0.79

 

Asian students; Fall to Spring

Delayed test-retest

1st

538

 

0.79

 

African American students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st

514

 

0.75

 

African American students; Fall to Spring

Delayed test-retest

1st

330

 

0.77

 

Hispanic students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st

122

 

0.75

 

Hispanic students; Fall to Spring

Delayed test-retest

1st

151

 

0.83

 

Multiracial students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st

145

 

0.73

 

Multiracial students; Fall to Spring

Delayed test-retest

1st

1,450

 

0.84

 

White students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st

1,679

 

0.74

 

White students; Fall to Spring

 

Disaggregated Validity

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient Range

Coefficient Median

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Concurrent Validity

1st Grade

CBMreading

36

 

0.88

Non-White students; Winter data collection

Concurrent validity

1st Grade

CBMreading

70

 

0.91

White students; Winter data collection

Concurrent validity

1st Grade

aReading

41

 

0.70

Non-White students; Winter data collection

Concurrent validity

1st Grade

aReading

82

 

0.60

White students; Winter data collection

Predictive validity

1st Grade

CBMreading

41

 

0.84

Non-White students; Winter to spring prediction

Predictive validity

1st Grade

CBMreading

81

 

0.84

White students; Winter to Spring prediction

Concurrent validity

1st Grade

CBMreading

42

 

0.86

Non-White students; Spring data collection

Concurrent validity

1st Grade

CBMreading

83

 

0.90

White students; Spring data collection

Predictive validity

KG

aReading

34

 

0.73

Multiracial students; Winter to spring prediction

Concurrent validity

1st Grade

aReading

30

 

0.71

African American students; Spring data collection

Concurrent validity

1st grade

aReading

261

 

0.72

White students; Spring data collection

Concurrent validity

KG

aReading

24

 

0.73

Asian students; Spring data collection