FAST: earlyReading English

Letter Names

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyhalf bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate Low
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityhalf bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Datahalf bubble
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time1-1.5 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers™ (FAST) is online software that requires no hardware or special add-ons. FAST is supported by an extensive set of materials to support teachers and students, including self-directed training modules that allow teachers to become certified to administer each of the FAST assessments. The entire FAST assessment package (i.e., reading, math, behavior, and on-line training) is provided at an annual flat rate of $6 per student.

Testers will require 1-4 hours of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

Where to Obtainhttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Address:

FastBridge Learning
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1057

Phone: 612-254-2534

Websitehttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Training materials are included in the cost of the tool.  Additional, optional on-site and webinar-based training services are available for a fee.

Ongoing technical support is available by calling 612-424-3710 or emailing fast1@umn.edu

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers (FAST) earlyReading measure is designed to assess both unified and component skills associated with kindergarten and first grade reading achievement. earlyReading is intended to enable screening and progress monitoring across four domains of reading (Concepts of Print, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Decoding) and provide domain specific assessments of these specific component skills and a general estimate of overall reading achievement.

The objective of the Letter Names measure is to determine the student’s ability and automaticity at naming upper-case and lower-case letters in isolation. To do this, the measure asks the student to identify letters presented in a random order. All 26 letters in the English alphabet are used. Each letter is used once in upper-case and once in lower-case.

The tool is intended for use in Kindergarten or with ages 5-6.

Administration is computerized and is 1-1.5 minutes per student. Scoring is done automatically within the software and does not require any additional time.

Available scores include: raw scores, percentile scores, developmental benchmarks and cut points, subscale/subtest scores, composite scores, and error analysis.

 

Classification Accuracy

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on GRADE for Kindergarten

 

15th Percentile

n = 214

40th Percentile

n = 214

False Positive Rate

0.26

0.30

False Negative Rate

0.24

0.31

Sensitivity

0.76

0.69

Specificity

0.74

0.69

Positive Predictive Power

0.20

0.47

Negative Predictive Power

0.97

0.85

Overall Classification Rate

0.74

0.69

AUC (ROC)

0.81

0.76

Base Rate

0.08

0.29

Cut Points:

20

25

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

94% sensitivity, 0.58 specificity

85% sensitivity, 0.56 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

76% sensitivity, 0.74 specificity

77% sensitivity, 0.65 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

71% sensitivity, 0.76 specificity

70% sensitivity, 0.69 specificity

 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

·         Number of States: 1 (Minnesota)

·         Regions: 1

·         Gender

o   47% Male

o   53% Female

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   65% White, Non-Hispanic

o   0% American Indian/Alaska Native

o   23% Black, Non-Hispanic

o   0% Asian, Pacific Islander

o   6% Hispanic

o   3% Other

·         Disability status: approximately 11% SWDs

·         First language: approximately 90% English

·         Language proficiency status: 100% English proficient

Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Alternate Form Correlation

K

36-37

0.82-0.92

0.88

5.07(3.77)

 

Test Retest

K

34

 

0.94*

 

Collected in Fall 2012, ~2-3 week delay

Delayed Test- Retest

K

1,781

0.62-0.67

0.65

 

Fall-Winter

Delayed Test- Retest

K

951

 

0.55

 

Winter-Spring

Delayed Test- Retest

K

1,141

 

0.45

 

Fall-Spring

Coefficient alpha

K

444

 

0.95 for first 18 items

 

0.98 for first 25 items

 

0.98 for first 41 items

 

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. The sample consisted of approximately 55% female students and 45% male students. Approximately 60.8% of the sample was White, 14% Black, 12.6% Hispanic, 7.9% Asian, 4.1% Multiracial, and 0.7% American Indian or Alaska Native.

Split-half

K

444

 

0.96 for first 18 items

 

0.99 for first 25 items

 

0.99 for first 41 items

 

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. The sample consisted of approximately 55% female students and 45% male students. Approximately 60.8% of the sample was White, 14% Black, 12.6% Hispanic, 7.9% Asian, 4.1% Multiracial, and 0.7% American Indian or Alaska Native.

*Outliers that were +/- 2 standard deviations from the mean were removed from the test-retest reliability sample. In this case 2 cases, making up 3% of the sample, were removed.

Validity

 

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

 

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient (if applicable)

 

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

Median

 

Concurrent

 

K

GRADE Level P

85

 

0.41

The majority of students within the school district were White (78%), with the remaining students identified as either African American (19%), or other (3%). In school District 2, the majority of students within the school district are White (53%), with the remaining students identified as African American (26%), Hispanic (11%), Asian (8%), or other (2%).

Predictive

K

GRADE Level K

230

 

0.47

See Above

Predictive

K

GRADE Level K

210

 

0.63

See Above

Concurrent

K

GRADE Level K

214

 

0.18

See Above

Discriminant Validity (Beginning)

Kindergarten

Letter Names

182

 

Difference Stats:

t = 34.42

d = 3.27

 

Discriminant Validity (Middle)

Kindergarten

Letter Names

182

 

t = 30.66

d = 2.99

 

Discriminant Validity (End)

Kindergarten

Letter Names

193

 

t = 14.17

d = 1.32

 

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

N

Coefficient

Information/Subjects

Predictive validity

1st grade

aReading

23

0.88

Winter to Spring prediction

Concurrent validity

1st grade

CBMReading

22

0.86

Winter data collection

Predictive validity

1st grade

CBMReading

19

0.90

Winter to Spring prediction

Concurrent

K

AIMSweb

Letter Names

141

1

See below.

Concurrent

K

AIMSweb

Letter Sounds

141

0.88

See below.

Predictive

K

AIMSweb

Letter Names

141

0.81

Fall to Winter

Predictive

K

AIMSweb

Letter Sounds

141

0.76

Fall to Winter

*Correlations disattenuated based on reported reliabilities.

AIMSweb Letter Names requires students to read letter names aloud for one minute.  The score is the correct number of letter names a student can read per minute.

AIMSweb Letter Sounds requires students to read letter sounds aloud for one minute. The score is the correct number of letter sounds a student can read per minute.

The earlyReading validity evidence study coefficients were derived from a sample of approximately 140 students each in Kindergarten and First Grade. Approximately 47% of students were female. Reported races of students were White (59%), Hispanic (9%), Black (12%), American Indian (1%), and Asian/Pacific Islander (18%).  Approximately 21% of students were English Language Learners, 32% were eligible for free or reduced lunch, and 9% received special education services.

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Disaggregated Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Delayed Test-Retest

K

293

0.63-0.75

0.69

-

African American students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test-Retest

K

194

0.51-0.69

0.61

-

Hispanic/Latino students 

 – Fall to Winter

Delayed Test-Retest

K

1,129

0.57-0.64

0.61

-

White/Caucasian students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test-Retest

K

274

0.49-0.65

0.57

-

African American students

– Fall to Spring

Delayed Test-Retest

K

179

0.31-0.55

0.44

-

Hispanic/Latino students

 – Fall to Spring

Delayed Test-Retest

K

1,293

0.36-0.45

0.40

-

White/Caucasian students

 – Fall to Spring