FAST: earlyReading English

Nonsense Words

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyfull bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate Low
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityfull bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Datafull bubble
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time1-2 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers™ (FAST) is online software that requires no hardware or special add-ons. FAST is supported by an extensive set of materials to support teachers and students, including self-directed training modules that allow teachers to become certified to administer each of the FAST assessments. The entire FAST assessment package (i.e., reading, math, behavior, and on-line training) is provided at an annual flat rate of $6 per student.

Testers will require 1-4 hours of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

Where to Obtainhttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Address:

FastBridge Learning
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1057

Phone: 612-254-2534

Websitehttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Training materials are included in the cost of the tool.  Additional, optional on-site and webinar-based training services are available for a fee.

Ongoing technical support is available by calling 612-424-3710 or emailing fast1@umn.edu

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers (FAST) earlyReading measure is designed to assess both unified and component skills associated with kindergarten and first grade reading achievement. earlyReading is intended to enable screening and progress monitoring across four domains of reading (Concepts of Print, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Decoding) and provide domain specific assessments of these specific component skills and a general estimate of overall reading achievement.

The objective of the Nonsense Words measure is to assess whether students are able to recognize letter-sound correspondences and blend them fluently. The measure is designed to assess whether students can decode strings of letters and read them fluently while controlling for potential familiarity that students may have when decoding real words. All of the nonsense words used in the assessment are not established words in the English language, but are allowable letter sequences in English.

The tool is intended for use in K-1 or with ages 5-7.

Administration is computerized and is 1-2 minutes per student. Scoring is done automatically within the software and does not require any additional time.

Available scores include: raw scores, percentile scores, developmental benchmarks and cut points, subscale/subtest scores, composite scores, and error analysis.

 

Classification Accuracy

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on GRADE (Spring)

 

Kindergarten

(15th Percentile)

n = 216

Kindergarten

(40th Percentile)

n = 216

1st Grade

(15th Percentile)

n = 173

1st Grade

(40th Percentile)

n = 159

False Positive Rate

0.19

0.21

0.12

0.22

False Negative Rate

0.17

0.29

0.14

0.07

Sensitivity

0.83

0.70

0.86

0.93

Specificity

0.81

0.79

0.88

0.78

Positive Predictive Power

0.29

0.57

0.23

0.46

Negative Predictive Power

0.98

0.87

0.99

0.98

Overall Classification Rate

0.81

0.76

0.88

0.81

AUC (ROC)

0.90

0.78

0.93

0.92

Base Rate

0.08

0.28

0.04

0.17

Cut Points:

6

8

2

14

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

 94% sensitivity, 0.77 specificity

n/a

100% sensitivity, 0.82 specificity

93% sensitivity, 0.81 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

83% sensitivity, 0.81 specificity

80% sensitivity, 0.56 specificity

86% sensitivity, 0.88 specificity

81% sensitivity, 0.83 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

67% sensitivity, 0.85 specificity

70% sensitivity, 0.79 specificity

57% sensitivity, 0.94 specificity

70% sensitivity, 0.89 specificity

 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

·         Number of States: 1 (Minnesota)

·         Regions: 1

·         Gender

o   47% Male

o   53% Female

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   65% White, Non-Hispanic

o   0% American Indian/Alaska Native

o   23% Black, Non-Hispanic

o   0% Asian, Pacific Islander

o   6% Hispanic

o   3% Other

·         Disability status: approximately 11% SWDs

·         First language: approximately 90% English

·         Language proficiency status: 100% English proficient

Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Alternate Form Correlation

K

28

0.86-0.96

0.93

2.15(1.91)

 

Alternate Form Correlation

1

26-27

0.69-0.96

0.85

3.05(3.04)

 

Test Retest

K

27

0.86-0.97

0.94

1.41

Collected in Fall 2012, ~2-3 week delay

Test Retest

1

36

 

0.88

 

Collected in Fall 2012, ~2-3 week delay

Delayed Test Retest

K

119

0.60-0.78

0.70

--

Fall-Winter

Delayed Test Retest

K

321

 

0.74

 

Winter-Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

1,977

0.76-0.80

0.78

--

Fall-Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

1,046

0.62-0.69

0.65

--

Winter-Spring

Coefficient alpha

K-1

501

 

0.74 for first 5 items

 

0.93 for first 18 items

 

0.96 for first 31 items

 

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 48.1% of students were female, and 51.9% were male. Approximately 39.9% of the sample was White, 30.3% Black, 15.4% Hispanic, 7.4% Multiracial, and 7% Asian.

Split-half

K-1

501

 

0.73 for first 5 items

 

0.95 for first 18 items

 

0.98 for first 31 items

 

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 48.1% of students were female, and 51.9% were male. Approximately 39.9% of the sample was White, 30.3% Black, 15.4% Hispanic, 7.4% Multiracial, and 7% Asian.

 

Validity

 

 

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

 

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient (if applicable)

 

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

Median

Predictive

 

K

GRADE Level K

105

 

0.44

Participants included kindergarten students from two school districts. In School District 1 three elementary schools participated. Kindergarten students from District 1 who participated in the study were enrolled in all day or half day kindergarten. The majority of students within the school district were White (78%), with the remaining students identified as either African American (19%), or other (3%). In school District 2, the majority of students within the school district are White (53%), with the remaining students identified as African American (26%), Hispanic (11%), Asian (8%), or other (2%).

Concurrent

K

GRADE Level K

215

 

0.27

See above comment

Predictive

1

GRADE Level 1

179

 

0.60

See above comment

Predictive

1

GRADE Level 1

168

 

0.67

See above comment

Concurrent

1

GRADE Level 1

179

 

0.43

See above comment

Discriminant (Middle)

Kindergarten

Nonsense Words

107
 

 

Difference stats:

t = 12.20

d = 1.55

 

Discriminant (End)

Kindergarten

Nonsense Words

191

 

Difference stats:

t = 17.96

d = 1.68

 

Discriminant (Middle)

1

Nonsense Words

283
 

 

Difference stats:

t = 22.09

d = 1.81

 

Discriminant (Middle)

1

Nonsense Words

221
 

 

Difference stats:

t = 21.79

d = 1.93

 

Discriminant (End)

1

Nonsense Words

240

 

Difference stats:

t = 26.44

d = 2.19

 

 

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Concurrent Validity

K

aReading

17

0.80

The sample consisted of approximately 118 Kindergarten students (42.9% female). The majority of students (76.7%) were not eligible to receive special education services. Data collected during Winter.

 

Predictive Validity

K

aReading

17

0.81

The sample consisted of approximately 118 Kindergarten students (42.9% female). The majority of students (76.7%) were not eligible to receive special education services. Data collected during Winter.

Predictive Validity

1st

aReading

21

0.76

The sample consisted of approximately 145 First Grade students (45.3% female). The majority of students (79.7%) were not eligible to receive special education services. The majority of students were White (64.2%) followed by 20.9% Hispanic, 5.4% African American, and 4.1% Asian. Winter to Spring prediction.

Predictive Validity

1st

CBMReading WRC/min

21

0.87

The sample consisted of approximately 145 First Grade students (45.3% female). The majority of students (79.7%) were not eligible to receive special education services. The majority of students were White (64.2%) followed by 20.9% Hispanic, 5.4% African American, and 4.1% Asian. Winter to Spring prediction.

Concurrent Validity

1st

CBMReading WRC/min

125

0.78

The sample consisted of approximately 145 First Grade students (45.3% female). The majority of students (79.7%) were not eligible to receive special education services. The majority of students were White (64.2%) followed by 20.9% Hispanic, 5.4% African American, and 4.1% Asian. Data collected in the Spring.

Construct and content validity depend substantially on the development and selection of stimuli. See below for a description of the content.

Nonsense Words
This measure is designed to assess whether students are able to recognize letter-sound correspondences and blend them fluently. The logic behind a nonsense word measure is that it assesses whether students can decode strings of letters and read them fluently while controlling for potential familiarity that students may have when decoding real words. Nonsense words should be decodable strings of letters that are not established words in the English language but are allowable letter sequences in English.

Test Construction. A word bank containing 378 consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) or vowel-consonant (VC) pretend words was created. Pretend words that began with ci-, ce-, and ended in -l, -q, -r and –y were not included in the word bank. All inappropriate sounding words were not included in the word bank.  Definitions of all pretend words were not found in a Standard English dictionary.  The first 15-20 words of each progress monitoring form contained words with unique initial sounds in random order. The remaining 30-35 words were randomly selected from the word bank, for a total of 50 words per form.  All words on each form were unique. Each form was organized with ten rows with five words in each row.

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Disaggregated Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on CBMReading (Curriculum Based Measures of Reading)

 

1st Grade

(Spring predicting Spring; 15th Percentile; Non-White)

n = 53

1st Grade

(Spring predicting Spring; 15th Percentile; White)

n = 95

1st Grade

(Spring predicting Spring; 40th Percentile; Non-White)

n = 53

1st Grade

(Spring predicting Spring; 40th Percentile; White)

n = 95

False Positive Rate

0.19

0.20

0.20

0.17

False Negative Rate

0.09

0.05

0.14

0.17

Sensitivity

0.91

0.95

0.86

0.83

Specificity

0.81

0.80

0.80

0.83

Positive Predictive Power

0.56

0.55

0.83

0.74

Negative Predictive Power

0.97

0.98

0.83

0.89

Overall Classification Rate

0.83

0.83

0.83

0.83

AUC (ROC)

0.89

0.92

0.85

0.89

Base Rate

0.21

0.20

0.53

0.37

Cut Points:

13

13.5

15.5

18

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

91% sensitivity, 0.74 specificity

95% sensitivity, 0.77 specificity

93% sensitivity, 0.57 specificity

91% sensitivity, 0.56 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

82% sensitivity, 0.74 specificity

79% sensitivity, 0.84 specificity

82% sensitivity, 0.71 specificity

80% sensitivity, 0.90 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

64% sensitivity, 0.81 specificity

58% sensitivity, 0.95 specificity

75% sensitivity, 0.79 specificity

71% sensitivity, 0.92 specificity

 

Disaggregated Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient Range

Coefficient Median

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Delayed Test-Retest

1st grade

26

 

0.88

 

Native American students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

27

 

0.82

 

Native American students; Fall to Spring

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

190

 

0.84

 

Asian students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

180

 

0.76

 

Asian students; Fall to Spring

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

254

 

0.72

 

African American students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

25

 

0.70

 

African American students; Fall to Spring

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

173

 

0.73

 

Hispanic students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

91

 

0.79

 

Multiracial students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

98

 

0.75

 

Multiracial students; Fall to Spring

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

1,263

 

0.81

 

White students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

1,435

 

0.71

 

White students; Fall to Spring

Delayed test-retest

K

91

 

0.73

 

White students; Fall to Winter

 

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Delayed Test Retest

K

23

0.14-0.77

0.52

-

 African American

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

K

91

0.62-0.81

0.73

-

 White/Caucasian

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

K

38

0.00-0.55

0.28

-

African American

Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

K

102

0.38-0.66

0.54

-

 White/Caucasian

Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

337

0.69-0.79

0.74

-

African American

Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

225

0.67-0.79

0.74

-

Hispanic/Latino

Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

1,156

0.76-0.80

0.78

-

White/Caucasian

Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

179

0.50-0.69

0.60

-

African American

Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

121

0.54-0.75

0.66

-

Hispanic/Latino

Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

624

0.58-0.68

0.63

-

White/Caucasian

Fall to Spring

 

 

Disaggregated Validity

 

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient Range

Coefficient Median

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Concurrent validity

1st grade

CBMreading

42

 

0.76

Non-White students; Spring data collection

Concurrent validity

1st grade

CBMreading

83

 

0.78

White students; Spring data collection

Predictive validity

1st grade

aReading

23

 

0.77

Native American students; Winter to spring prediction

Concurrent validity

1st grade

aReading

24

 

0.76

Native American students; Fall data collection

Predictive validity

1st grade

aReading

18

 

0.76

Native American students; Fall to Spring prediction

Predictive validity

1st grade

aReading

26

 

0.71

Hispanic students; Fall to Spring prediction