FAST: earlyReading English

Onset Sounds

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyfull bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate Low
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityempty bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Datahalf bubble
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time2-3 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers™ (FAST) is online software that requires no hardware or special add-ons. FAST is supported by an extensive set of materials to support teachers and students, including self-directed training modules that allow teachers to become certified to administer each of the FAST assessments. The entire FAST assessment package (i.e., reading, math, behavior, and on-line training) is provided at an annual flat rate of $6 per student.

Testers will require 1-4 hours of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

Where to Obtainhttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Address

FastBridge Learning
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1057

Phone: 612-254-2534

Websitehttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Training materials are included in the cost of the tool.  Additional, optional on-site and webinar-based training services are available for a fee.

Ongoing technical support is available by calling 612-424-3710 or emailing fast1@umn.edu

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers (FAST) earlyReading measure is designed to assess both unified and component skills associated with kindergarten and first grade reading achievement. earlyReading is intended to enable screening and progress monitoring across four domains of reading (Concepts of Print, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Decoding) and provide domain specific assessments of these specific component skills and a general estimate of overall reading achievement.

The objective of the Onset Sound measure is to serve as a phonemic awareness task. Children are presented with a set of pictures and are asked to correctly identify the picture that begins with a particular sound, or are asked to generate the initial sound for a particular picture. A key factor in determining which words were appropriate to use as items was whether or not they could be illustrated in a simple drawing. The assessment has a total of 16 items that are randomized in order of presentation. The 16 items are broken into four sets of four. Each item set contains three selection questions (e.g., “Which one begins with /s/?”) and one production question (e.g., “What’s the first sound in the word ‘fruit’?”). The student stimuli form is comprised of four boxes, with each box containing a picture. The item sets are represented in the boxes as follows: upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right.

The tool is intended for use in Kindergarten or with ages 5-6.

Administration is computerized and is 2-3 minutes per student. Scoring is done automatically within the software and does not require any additional time.

Available scores include: raw scores, percentile scores, developmental benchmarks and cut points, subscale/subtest scores, composite scores, and error analysis.

 

 

Classification Accuracy

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on GRADE for Kindergarten

 

15th Percentile

n = 214

40th Percentile

n = 214

False Positive Rate

0.11

0.23

False Negative Rate

0.18

0.20

Sensitivity

0.82

0.80

Specificity

0.89

0.77

Positive Predictive Power

0.40

0.58

Negative Predictive Power

0.98

0.91

Overall Classification Rate

0.89

0.78

AUC (ROC)

0.88

0.83

Base Rate

0.08

0.29

Cut Points:

7

12

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

94% sensitivity, 0.65 specificity

89% sensitivity, 0.52 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

82% sensitivity, 0.89 specificity

80% sensitivity, 0.77 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

71% sensitivity, 0.90 specificity

72% sensitivity, 0.84 specificity

 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

·         Number of States: 1 (Minnesota)

·         Regions: 1

·         Gender

o   47% Male

o   53% Female

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   65% White, Non-Hispanic

o   0% American Indian/Alaska Native

o   23% Black, Non-Hispanic

o   0% Asian, Pacific Islander

o   6% Hispanic

o   3% Other

·         Disability status: approximately 11% SWDs

·         First language: approximately 90% English

·         Language proficiency status: 100% English proficient

Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Alternate Form Correlation

K

25-29

0.77-0.89

0.83

0.99 (0.86)

 

Reliability of Slope

K

2,129

-

0.91

-

Using 3 time points, fall, winter, and spring

Test-Retest

K

37

 

0.85

 

Collected in Fall 2012, ~2-3 week delay

Delayed Test-Retest

K

89

 

0.75

 

Fall-Winter

Delayed Test-Retest

K

90

 

0.67

 

Winter-Spring

Delayed Test-Retest

K

167

 

0.58

 

Fall-Spring

Coefficient α

K

597

 

0.87

 

Data was derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 47.9% of students were female, and 52.1% were male. Approximately 42.9% of students were White, 23.1% Black, 20.8% Hispanic, 6.4% Multiracial, 4.5% Asian, and 2.3% American Indian or Alaska Native.

Split-half

K

597

 

0.91

 

Data was derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 47.9% of students were female, and 52.1% were male. Approximately 42.9% of students were White, 23.1% Black, 20.8% Hispanic, 6.4% Multiracial, 4.5% Asian, and 2.3% American Indian or Alaska Native.

 

Validity

 

 

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

 

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient (if applicable)

 

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

Median

Concurrent

K

GRADE Level P

85

 

0.62

The majority of students within the school district were White (78%), with the remaining students identified as either African American (19%), or other (3%). In school District 2, the majority of students within the school district are White (53%), with the remaining students identified as African American (26%), Hispanic (11%), Asian (8%), or other (2%).

Predictive

K

GRADE Level K

230

 

0.55

See Above

Predictive

K

GRADE Level K

216

 

0.60

See Above

Concurrent

K

GRADE Level K

140

 

0.03

See Above

Discriminant Validity (Beginning)

K

Onset Sounds

185

 

Difference Stats:

t = 32.46

d = 3.09

 

 

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Disaggregated Reliability

 

 

Ethnicity

 

Test-Retest Coefficient (N)

F to W

Test-Retest Coefficient (N)

W to S

Test-Retest Coefficient (N)

F to S

Onset Sounds

Asian

K

--

--

0.46 (143)

Onset Sounds

Black

K

0.53 (424)

0.50 (82)

--

Onset Sounds

Hispanic

K

0.51 (274)

0.62 (19)

0.54 (92)

Onset Sounds

White

K

0.49 (1,418)

0.50 (158)

0.46 (373)

 

Disaggregated Validity

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Predictive Validity

K

aReading

57

0.71

Native American students; Fall to Spring prediction

Concurrent validity

K

aReading

81

0.72

Asian students; Fall data collection

Predictive validity

K

aReading

97

0.70

Asian students; Fall to Winter prediction