FAST: earlyReading English

Rhyming

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyfull bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate Low
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityempty bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity DataN A
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time2-3 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers™ (FAST) is online software that requires no hardware or special add-ons. FAST is supported by an extensive set of materials to support teachers and students, including self-directed training modules that allow teachers to become certified to administer each of the FAST assessments. The entire FAST assessment package (i.e., reading, math, behavior, and on-line training) is provided at an annual flat rate of $6 per student.

Testers will require 1-4 hours of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

Where to Obtainhttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Address:

FastBridge Learning
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1057

Phone: 612-254-2534

Websitehttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Training materials are included in the cost of the tool.  Additional, optional on-site and webinar-based training services are available for a fee.

Ongoing technical support is available by calling 612-424-3710 or emailing fast1@umn.edu

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers (FAST) earlyReading measure is designed to assess both unified and component skills associated with kindergarten and first grade reading achievement. earlyReading is intended to enable screening and progress monitoring across four domains of reading (Concepts of Print, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Decoding) and provide domain specific assessments of these specific component skills and a general estimate of overall reading achievement.

The objective of the Rhyming measure is to serve as a phonemic awareness task. Students are presented with a set of pictures and are asked to correctly identify the picture that rhymes with a particular word or are asked to generate another word that rhymes with a spoken word. A key factor in determining which stimuli were appropriate to use as items was whether or not they could be illustrated in a simple drawing. Each item set contains three selection questions (e.g., “Which one rhymes with wall?”) and one production question (e.g., “What’s another word that rhymes with wall?). The student stimuli form is comprised of four boxes, with each box containing a picture. The item sets are represented in the boxes as follows: upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right. Selected words were reviewed by the authors and pilot tested.

The tool is intended for use in Kindergarten or with ages 5-6.

Administration is computerized and is 2-3 minutes per student. Scoring is done automatically within the software and does not require any additional time.

Available scores include: raw scores, percentile scores, developmental benchmarks and cut points, subscale/subtest scores, composite scores, and error analysis.

 

Classification Accuracy

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on GRADE for Kindergarten

 

15th Percentile

n = 209

40th Percentile

n = 209

False Positive Rate

0.11

0.24

False Negative Rate

0.12

0.25

Sensitivity

0.88

0.75

Specificity

0.89

0.76

Positive Predictive Power

0.41

0.54

Negative Predictive Power

0.99

0.89

Overall Classification Rate

0.89

0.76

AUC (ROC)

0.92

0.83

Base Rate

0.08

0.27

Cut Points:

7

12

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

94% sensitivity, 0.67 specificity

88% sensitivity, 0.57 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

88% sensitivity, 0.89 specificity

75% sensitivity, 0.76 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

71% sensitivity, 0.93 specificity

70% sensitivity, 0.84 specificity

 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

·         Number of States: 1 (Minnesota)

·         Regions: 1

·         Gender

o   47% Male

o   53% Female

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   65% White, Non-Hispanic

o   0% American Indian/Alaska Native

o   23% Black, Non-Hispanic

o   0% Asian, Pacific Islander

o   6% Hispanic

o   3% Other

·         Disability status: approximately 11% SWDs

·         First language: approximately 90% English

·         Language proficiency status: 100% English proficient

Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Test-Retest

K

38

 

 

0.81

 

Collected in Fall 2012, ~2-3 week delay

Delayed Test-Retest

K

917

 

0.68

 

Fall-Winter

Delayed Test-Retest

K

946

 

0.62

 

Winter-Spring

Delayed Test-Retest

K

1,130

 

0.46

 

Fall-Spring

Coefficient α

K

586

 

0.94

 

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 53.2% of students were female and 46.8% were male. Approximately 59.7% of students were White, 13.5% Hispanic, 12.5% Black, 7.5% Multiracial, 4.9% Asian, and 1.9% American Indian.

Split-Half

K

586

 

0.91

 

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 53.2% of students were female and 46.8% were male. Approximately 59.7% of students were White, 13.5% Hispanic, 12.5% Black, 7.5% Multiracial, 4.9% Asian, and 1.9% American Indian.

 

Validity

 

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

 

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient (if applicable)

 

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

Median

Concurrent

K

GRADE

173

 

0.53

The majority of students within the school district were White (78%), with the remaining students identified as either African American (19%), or other (3%). In school District 2, the majority of students within the school district are White (53%), with the remaining students identified as African American (26%), Hispanic (11%), Asian (8%), or other (2%).

Predictive

K

GRADE Level K

173

 

0.62

See Above

Discriminant Validity (Beginning)

K

Rhyming

191

 

Difference Stats:

t = 36.50

d = 3.47

 

Discriminant Validity (Middle)

K

Rhyming

194

 

t = 25.00

d = 2.46

 

Discriminant Validity (End)

K

Rhyming

224

 

t = 17.95

d = 1.67

 

Predictive K GRADE Phonological Awareness 211   0.70 The sample consisted of approximately 233 Kindergarten students (45.5% female). The majority of students were White (60.5%), followed by 20.2% African American, 9.9% Hispanic, 6.0% Asian, and 3.4% Multiracial students. Winter to Spring prediction.
Concurrent K AIMSweb Phoneme Segmentation 141   0.74 See below.

*Correlations disattenuated based on reported reliabilities.

AIMSweb phoneme segmentation requires students to listen to a word and respond with all of the sounds, or phonemes, in the word.  The score is the correct number of sounds identified per minute.

The earlyReading validity evidence study coefficients were derived from a sample of approximately 140 students each in Kindergarten and First Grade. Approximately 47% of students were female. Reported races of students were White (59%), Hispanic (9%), Black (12%), American Indian (1%), and Asian/Pacific Islander (18%).  Approximately 21% of students were English Language Learners, 32% were eligible for free or reduced lunch, and 9% received special education services.