FAST: earlyReading English

Sentence Reading

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyfull bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate Low
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityfull bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Datafull bubble
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time1-2 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers™ (FAST) is online software that requires no hardware or special add-ons. FAST is supported by an extensive set of materials to support teachers and students, including self-directed training modules that allow teachers to become certified to administer each of the FAST assessments. The entire FAST assessment package (i.e., reading, math, behavior, and on-line training) is provided at an annual flat rate of $6 per student.

Testers will require 1-4 hours of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

Where to Obtain: http://www.fastbridge.org/

Address:

FastBridge Learning
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1057

Phone: 612-254-2534

Website:http://www.fastbridge.org/

Training materials are included in the cost of the tool.  Additional, optional on-site and webinar-based training services are available for a fee.

Ongoing technical support is available by calling 612-424-3710 or emailing fast1@umn.edu

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers (FAST) earlyReading measure is designed to assess both unified and component skills associated with kindergarten and first grade reading achievement. earlyReading is intended to enable screening and progress monitoring across four domains of reading (Concepts of Print, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Decoding) and provide domain specific assessments of these specific component skills and a general estimate of overall reading achievement.

The objective of the Sentence Reading measure is to assess automaticity while reading connected text. This measure is only available as a screener. For progress monitoring purposes, CBM—Reading is recommended. The sentence reading passages were pulled directly from a set of passages designed for FAST CBM-Reading. These passages are essentially a CBM-Reading passage but have been broken apart with basic pictures included. The first three pages contain only one sentence while the last three pages have progressively more sentences. The passages are of median difficulty.

The tool is intended for use in 1st grade or with ages 5-7.

Administration is computerized and is 1-2 minutes per student. Scoring is done automatically within the software and does not require any additional time.

Available scores include: raw scores, percentile scores, developmental benchmarks and cut points, subscale/subtest scores, composite scores, and error analysis.

 

Classification Accuracy

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on GRADE for 1st Grade

 

15th Percentile

n = 182

40th Percentile

n = 182

False Positive Rate

0.02

0.07

False Negative Rate

0.18

0.06

Sensitivity

0.82

0.93

Specificity

0.98

0.93

Positive Predictive Power

0.69

0.73

Negative Predictive Power

0.99

0.99

Overall Classification Rate

0.97

0.93

AUC (ROC)

0.98

0.98

Base Rate

0.06

0.17

Cut Points:

42

68

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

91% sensitivity, 0.93 specificity

94% sensitivity, 0.93 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

82% sensitivity, 0.99 specificity

81% sensitivity, 0.97 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

73% sensitivity, 0.99 specificity

71% sensitivity, 0.98 specificity

 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

·         Number of States: 1 (Minnesota)

·         Regions: 1

·         Gender

o   47% Male

o   53% Female

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   65% White, Non-Hispanic

o   0% American Indian/Alaska Native

o   23% Black, Non-Hispanic

o   0% Asian, Pacific Islander

o   6% Hispanic

o   3% Other

·         Disability status: approximately 11% SWDs

·         First language: approximately 90% English

·         LEP: 100% English

 

Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Alternate- Form Correlation – Passage Bundles (Average Fisher z-transformed Inter-Passage Correlations)

Passage Level A (Grade 1)

Grade 1- 206

Grade 2 – 21

Grade 3 – 4

Total - 231

# passages 39

# Weeks < 2

0.89 - 0.94

0.92

3.03

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Alternate- Form Correlation – Passage Bundles (Average Fisher z-transformed Inter-Passage Correlations)

Passage Level B (Grades 2 & 3)

Grade 1 – 138

Grade 2 – 179

Grade 3 – 126

Grade 4 – 32

Grade 5 – 13

Total - 488

# passages 60

# Weeks  <2

0.87 - 0.92

0.90

4.97

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Alternate- Form Correlation –  Passage Bundles (Average Fisher z-transformed Inter-Passage Correlations)

Passage Level C

(Grades 4-6)

Grade 1 – 3

Grade 2- 135

Grade 3 – 79

Grade 4 – 156

Grade 5 – 140

Total - 513

# passages 60

# Weeks < 2

0.92 - 0.95

0.94

7.06

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Item-Total Correlation

Passage Level A (Grade 1)

Grade 1- 206

Grade 2 – 21

Grade 3 – 4

Total - 231

# passages 60

# Weeks < 2

0.91 - 0.92

0.92

 

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Item-Total Correlation

Passage Level B (Grades 2 & 3)

Grade 1 – 138

Grade 2 – 179

Grade 3 – 126

Grade 4 – 32

Grade 5 – 13

Total - 488

# passages 60

# Weeks < 2

0.89 - 0.91

0.90

 

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Item-Total Correlation

Passage Level C

(Grades 4-6)

Grade 1 – 3

Grade 2- 135

Grade 3 – 79

Grade 4 – 156

Grade 5 – 140

Total - 513

# passages 60

# Weeks < 2

0.88 - 0.93

0.91

 

Information gathered from 3 states (MN, NY, & GA)

Test-Retest

Grade 1

35

 

0.98

 

Collected in Fall 2012, ~2-3 week delay

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 1

N = 386

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~12

 

0.90

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 2

N = 369

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~12

 

0.92

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 3

N = 394

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 12

 

0.92

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 4

N = 396

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 12

 

0.89

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 5

N = 395

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 12

 

0.94

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Winter)

Grade 6

N = 220

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 12

 

0.94

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 1

N = 384

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.82

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 2

N = 367

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.89

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 3

N = 383

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.90

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 4

N = 388

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.93

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 5

N = 388

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.93

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Test-Retest (Fall to Spring)

Grade 6

N = 436

# passages 3 & 3

# Weeks between ~ 32

 

0.92

 

Information gathered from 2 states (MN & GA)

Inter-Rater

Passage Level A; Grade 1

146

0.83 – 1.00

0.97

 

Information based on all three sites (MN, NY, & GA)

Inter-Rater

Passage Level B: Grades 2 and 3

 

1,391

0.93 - 0.97

0.97

 

Information based on all three sites (MN, NY, & GA)

Inter-Rater

Passage Level C: Grades 4-6

1,345

0.83 – 1.00

0.98

 

Information based on all three sites (MN, NY, & GA)

 

Validity

Type of Validity Age or Grade Test or Criterion n (range) Coefficient (if applicable) Information (including normative data)/Subjects
range Median
Discriminant Validity (beginning) Grade 1 Sentence Reading 223 t = 17.44
d = 1.48
   
Concurrent Grade 1 Test of silent reading efficiency and comprehension (TOSREC) 218 0.86 (95% CI = 0.82 - 0.89)   Information based on all three sites (MN, NY, & GA)
Concurrent Grade 2  TOSREC 246 0.81 (95% CI = 0.77 - 0.85)    
Concurrent Grade 3  TOSREC 233 0.81 (95% CI = 0.76 - 0.85)    
Concurrent Grade 4  TOSREC 228 0.79 (95% CI = 0.74 - 0.84)    
Concurrent Grade 5 TOSREC 244 0.81 (95% CI = 0.76 -0.85)    
Concurrent Grade 6 TOSREC 222 0.82 (95% CI = 0.77 - 0.86)    
Concurrent Grade 1 DIBELS NEXT oral reading fluency measure 399 0.95 (95% CI = 0.94 - 0.96)   Information based on all three sites (MN, NY, & GA)
Concurrent Grade 2 DIBELS NEXT oral reading fluency measure 463 0.92 (95% CI = 0.90 - 0.93)    
Concurrent Grade 3 DIBELS NEXT oral reading fluency measure 483 0.96 (95% CI = 0.95 - 0.97)    
Concurrent Grade 4 DIBELS NEXT oral reading fluency measure 485 0.95 (95% CI = 0.94 - 0.96)    
Concurrent Grade 5 DIBELS NEXT oral reading fluency measure 503 0.95 (95% CI = 0.95 - 0.96)    
Concurrent Grade 6 DIBELS NEXT oral reading fluency measure 225 0.95 (95% CI = 0.94 - 0.96)    
Concurrent Grade 1 AIMSweb R-CBM Measure 399 0.95 (95% CI = 0.94 -0.96)    
Concurrent Grade 2 AIMSweb R-CBM Measure 425 0.97 (95% CI = 0.96 - 0.98)    
Concurrent Grade 3 AIMSweb R-CBM Measure 402 0.95 (95% CI = 0.95 - 0.96)    
Concurrent Grade 4 AIMSweb R-CBM Measure 445 0.96 (95% CI = 0.96 - 0.97)    
Concurrent Grade 5 AIMSweb R-CBM Measure 447 0.96 (95% CI = 0.95 - 0.97)    
Concurrent Grade 6 AIMSweb R-CBM Measure 229 0.95 (95% CI = 0.93 - 0.96)    
Concurrent Grade 2 Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) 237 0.81 (95% CI = 0.77 - 0.85)    
Concurrent Grade 3 Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) 231 0.78 (95% CI = 0.72 - 0.82)    
Concurrent Grade 4 Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) 233 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67 - 0.79)    
Concurrent Grade 5   Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) 219 0.66 (95% CI = 0.58 - 0.73)    
Concurrent Grade 6   Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) 212 0.69 (95% CI = 0.61 - 0.75)    
Concurrent Grade 3 MN Comprehensive Assessment III (MCA-III) 852 0.76   MN
Concurrent Grade 4 MCA-III 818 0.71   MN
Concurrent Grade 5 MCA-III 771 0.7   MN
Predictive Grade 1 AIMSweb 385 0.91 (95% CI = 0.89 - 0.93)   M = 18.68 Weeks
Predictive Grade 2 AIMSweb 413 0.93 (95% CI = 0.92 -0.94)   M = 18.56 Weeks
Predictive Grade 3 AIMSweb 391 0.91 (95% CI = 0.89 - 0.93)   M = 18.98 Weeks
Predictive Grade 4 AIMSweb 427 0.94 (95% CI = 0.93 - 0.95)   M = 19 Weeks
Predictive Grade 5 AIMSweb 431 0.93 (95% CI = 0.91 - 0.94)   M = 19 Weeks
Predictive Grade 6 AIMSweb 220 0.94 (95% CI = 0.92 - 0.95)   M  = 17.45 Weeks 
Predictive Grade 1 DIBELS NEXT 425 0.82 (95% CI = 0.79 - 0.85)   M  = 35.57 Weeks 
Predictive Grade 2   DIBELS NEXT 80 0.74 (95% CI = 0.62 - 0.82)   M = 35.93 Weeks
Predictive Grade 3 DIBELS NEXT 76 0.91 (95% CI = 0.86 - 0.94)   M = 35.79 Weeks 
Predictive Grade 4 DIBELS NEXT 74 0.90 (95% CI = 0.85 - 0.94)   M = 35.67 Weeks
Predictive Grade 5 DIBELS NEXT 85 0.93 (95% CI = 0.89 - 0.95)   M = 35.67 Weeks
Predictive Grade 1 TOSREC 44 0.47 (95% CI 0.21 - 0.67)   M = 35.57 Weeks
Predictive Grade 2 TOSREC 35 0.56 (95% CI = 0.29 - 0.75)   M = 35.94 Weeks 
Predictive Grade 3 TOSREC 33 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46 - 0.83)   M = 35.79 Weeks 
Predictive Grade 4 TOSREC 35 0.52 (95% CI = 0.24 - 0.73)   M = 35.67 Weeks 
Predictive Grade 6 TOSREC 18 0.87 (95% CI = 0.68 - 0.95)   M= 35.06 Weeks
Predictive Grade 2 MAP 240 0.76 (95% CI = 0.70 - 0.81)   M = 35.23 Weeks
Predictive Grade 3 MAP 233 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67 - 0.79)   M = 35.47 Weeks
Predictive Grade 4 MAP 235 0.69 (95% CI = 0.62 - 0.75)   M = 35.23 Weeks
Predictive Grade 5 MAP 220 0.65 (95% CI = 0.57 - 0.72)   M= 35.29 Weeks 
Predictive Grade 6 MAP 212 0.71 (95% CI = 0.63 - 0.77)   M= 35.06 Weeks 

 

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Disaggregated Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 2 

1,518

0.91 - 0.92

0.91

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 2 

369

0.90 - 0.94

0.92

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 2 

210

0.92 - 0.95

0.94

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 2 

308

0.91 - 0.94

0.93

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 3

1,439

0.91 - 0.92

0.92

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 3

442

0.90 - 0.93

0.91

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 3

197

0.87 - 0.92

0.90

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 3

314

0.91 - 0.94

0.93

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 4

1,384

0.88 - 0.91

0.90

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 4

353

0.89 - 0.92

0.91

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 4

204

0.89 - 0.94

0.92

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 4

268

0.87 - 0.92

0.90

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 5

1,309

0.91 - 0.93

0.92

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 5

378

0.91 - 0.94

0.93

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 5

205

0.89 - 0.93

0.91

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Winter ~ 14 Weeks

Grade 5

247

0.91 - 0.95

0.93

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 2

1,518

0.83 - 0.86

0.85

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 2

369

0.75 - 0.83

0.79

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 2

210

0.81 - 0.88

0.85

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 2

308

0.76 - 0.84

0.80

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 3

1,439

0.88 - 0.90

0.89

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade  3

442

0.82 - 0.87

0.85

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 3

197

0.80 - 0.88

0.84

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 3

314

0.80 - 0.87

0.84

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 4

1,384

0.85 - 0.88

0.87

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 4

353

0.82 - 0.88

0.85

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 4

204

0.80 -0.88

0.85

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 4

268

0.81 - 0.88

0.85

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 5

1,309

0.87 - 0.90

0.88

 

Caucasian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 5

378

0.77 - 0.84

0.81

 

African American Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 5

205

0.83 - 0.89

0.86

 

Asian Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

Delayed Test-Retest

Fall to Spring ~31 Weeks

Grade 5

247

0.84 - 0.90

0.87

 

Latino/a Students – Urban, Suburban, and Rural MN

 

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient Range

Coefficient Median

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

23

 

0.90

 

African American students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

20

 

0.89

 

African American; Fall to Spring

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

15

 

0.95

 

Hispanic students; Fall to Winter

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

18

 

0.77

 

Hispanic students; Fall to Spring

Delayed test-retest

1st grade

68

 

0.94

 

White students; Fall to Winter

 

Disaggregated Validity

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient Range

Coefficient Median

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Concurrent validity

1st grade

CBMreading

22

 

0.94

Non-white students; Fall data collection

Predictive validity

1st grade

CBMreading

1,722

 

0.89

Non-white students; Fall to Winter prediction

Predictive validity

1st grade

CBMreading

2,039

 

0.80

Non-white students; Fall to Spring prediction

Predictive validity

1st grade

CBMreading

2,035

 

0.90

White students; Fall to Winter prediction

Predictive validity

1st grade

CBMreading

2,317

 

0.82

White students; Fall to Spring prediction

Concurrent validity

1st grade

aReading

22

 

0.81

Native American students; Fall data collection

Predictive validity

1st grade

aReading

19

 

0.78

Native American students; Fall to Spring prediction

Predictive validity

1st grade

aReading

47

 

0.70

Asian students; Fall to Spring prediction

Predictive validity

1st grade

aReading

39

 

0.78

Multiracial students; Fall to Winter

Predictive validity

1st grade

aReading

48

 

0.77

Multiracial students; Fall to Spring

Predictive validity

1st grade

aReading

228

 

0.74

White students; Fall to Winter

Predictive validity

1st grade

aReading

247

 

0.77

White students; Winter to Spring

Concurrent validity

1st grade

aReading

28

 

0.82

African American students; Spring data collection

Concurrent validity

1st grade

aReading

24

 

0.83

Hispanic students; Spring data collection