FAST: earlyReading English

Word Blending

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyfull bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate Low
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityempty bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Datahalf bubble
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time1-3 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers™ (FAST) is an online software that requires no hardware or special add-ons. FAST is supported by an extensive set of materials to support teachers and students, including self-directed training modules that allow teachers to become certified to administer each of the FAST assessments. The entire FAST assessment package (i.e., reading, math, behavior, and on-line training) is provided at an annual flat rate of $6 per student.

Testers will require 1-4 hours of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

Where to Obtain:  http://www.fastbridge.org/

Address:

FastBridge Learning
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1057

Phone: 612-254-2534

Websitehttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Training materials are included in the cost of the tool.  Additional, optional on-site and webinar-based training services are available for a fee.

Ongoing technical support is available by calling 612-424-3710 or emailing fast1@umn.edu

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers (FAST) earlyReading measure is designed to assess both unified and component skills associated with kindergarten and first grade reading achievement. earlyReading is intended to enable screening and progress monitoring across four domains of reading (Concepts of Print, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Decoding) and provide domain specific assessments of these specific component skills and a general estimate of overall reading achievement.

The objective of the Word Blending measure is to assess the student’s ability to form a word from individually spoken sounds or phonemes. The examiner says each phoneme in a word and asks the student to say the complete word. The resulting score is 1 if the student says the word correctly and 0 if s/he does not produce the correct word.

The tool is intended for use in K-1 or with ages 5-7.

Administration is computerized and is 1-3 minutes per student. Scoring is done automatically within the software and does not require any additional time.

Available scores include: raw scores, percentile scores, developmental benchmarks and cut points, subscale/subtest scores, composite scores, and error analysis.

 

Classification Accuracy

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on GRADE (Spring)

 

Kindergarten

(15th Percentile)

n = 214

Kindergarten

(40th Percentile)

n = 214

1st Grade

(15th Percentile)

n = 173

1st Grade

(40th Percentile)

n = 173

False Positive Rate

0.28

0.21

0.20

0.28

False Negative Rate

0.125

0.36

0.14

0.28

Sensitivity

0.88

0.64

0.86

0.72

Specificity

0.72

0.79

0.80

0.72

Positive Predictive Power

0.20

0.53

0.15

0.30

Negative Predictive Power

0.99

0.85

0.99

0.94

Overall Classification Rate

0.73

0.75

0.80

0.72

AUC (ROC)

0.85

0.75

0.87

0.82

Base Rate

0.07

0.27

0.04

0.14

Cut Points:

9

9

6

7

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

88% sensitivity, 0.72 specificity

n/a

86% sensitivity, 0.80 specificity

84% sensitivity, 0.51 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

62% sensitivity, 0.93 specificity

64% sensitivity, 0.79 specificity

71% sensitivity, 0.93 specificity

72% sensitivity, 0.72 specificity

 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

·         Number of States: 1 (Minnesota)

·         Regions: 1

·         Gender

o   47% Male

o   53% Female

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   65% White, Non-Hispanic

o   0% American Indian/Alaska Native

o   23% Black, Non-Hispanic

o   0% Asian, Pacific Islander

o   6% Hispanic

o   3% Other

·         Disability status: approximately 11% SWDs

·         First language: approximately 90% English

·         Language proficiency status: 100% English proficient

Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Alternate Form

K

36-37

0.59-0.79

0.71

0.97 (0.82)

See Appendix C for sample information for alternate forms study

Alternate Form

1

30-31

0.15-0.59

0.26

 

See Appendix C for sample information for alternate forms study

Test Retest

K

32

 

0.81

 

~2-3 week delay; See Appendix B for demographic information

Delayed Test-Retest

K

832

 

0.59

 

Fall-Winter; See Appendix D for demographic information

Delayed Test-Retest

K

856

 

0.59

 

Winter-Spring; See Appendix D for demographic information

Delayed Test-Retest

K

1069

 

0.34

 

Fall-Spring; See Appendix D for demographic information

Test Retest

1

36

 

0.90

 

~2-3 week delay; See Appendix B for demographic information

Delayed Test-Retest

1

592

 

0.61

 

Fall-Winter; See Appendix D for demographic information

Delayed Test-Retest

1

579

 

0.78

 

Winter-Spring; See Appendix D for demographic information

Delayed Test-Retest

1

568

 

0.54

 

Fall-Spring; See Appendix D for demographic information

Split-half

K-1

480

-

0.91

-

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 42.3% of students were female, and 57.7% were male. Approximately 31% of students were White, 31% Black, 19% Hispanic, 9.6% Multiracial, 8.3% Asian, and 1% American Indian.

Coefficient α

K-1

480

-

0.90

-

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 42.3% of students were female, and 57.7% were male. Approximately 31% of students were White, 31% Black, 19% Hispanic, 9.6% Multiracial, 8.3% Asian, and 1% American Indian.

 

Validity

 

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

 

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient (if applicable)

 

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

Median

Concurrent

1

GRADE composite Level K

71

 

0.22

Collected in Fall; The majority of students within the school district were White (78%), with the remaining students identified as either African American (19%), or other (3%). In school District 2, the majority of students within the school district are White (53%), with the remaining students identified as African American (26%), Hispanic (11%), Asian (8%), or other (2%).

Concurrent

K

GRADE composite Level K

213

 

0.23

Data collected in Spring

Concurrent

1

GRADE composite Level 1

165

 

0.12

 

Data collected in Spring

 

Predictive

K

GRADE composite Level K

230

 

0.41

 

Fall to Spring prediction

 

Predictive

1

GRADE composite Level 1

179

 

0.56

 

Fall to Spring prediction

 

Predictive

K

GRADE composite Level K

227

 

0.66

Winter to Spring prediction

Predictive

1

GRADE composite Level 1

169

 

0.53

 

Winter to Spring prediction

 

Discriminant validity (Beginning)

K

Word Blending

209

 

Difference stats: t = 28.96

d = 2.76

 

Discriminant validity (Middle)

K

Word Blending

179

 

Difference stats: t = 41.72

d = 4.02

 

Discriminant validity (End)

K

Word Blending

206

 

Difference stats: t = 18.86

d = 1.76

 

Discriminant validity (Beginning)

1

Word Blending

253

 

Difference stats: t = 33.79

d = 2.74

 

Discriminant validity (Middle)

1

Word Blending

276

 

Difference stats: t = 19.61

d = 1.58

 

Construct and content validity depend substantially on the development and selection of stimuli. See below for a description of the content.

Word Blending
The Blending task assesses the student’s ability to form a word from individually spoken sounds or phonemes. The examiner says each phoneme in a word and asks the student to say the complete word. The resulting score is 1 if the student says the word correctly and 0 if s/he does not produce the correct word. For example, if the examiner says /t/ /o/ /p/, the score is 1 if the student says top and 0 if the student says anything else.

Test Construction. Items for Blending came from a bank of 210 words. All words with short vowel sounds are decodable consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words or decodable words with initial or final blends (CCVC or CVCC). Words with long vowel sounds (9% of the total number of words) contain vowel diagraphs or are CVC+e. Half of the total words begin with continuous sounds and half begin with stop sounds. A total of 20 progress monitoring forms were created. Each form contains 10 words. The first six items have 3 phonemes; items 7-10 have 4 phonemes, two words with initial blends and two words with final blends. Each set also has two words with each vowel in either long or short form. There is no overlap in words across all 20 for the Blending task. All words on the blending task are unique across forms, except for the last two forms, which repeat words. Across all sets, 30% of words overlap between the Blending tasks and the Segmenting tasks (i.e., the same word may appear in Form 4 of Blending and Form 15 of Segmenting). All consonant blends were available to use except –ng and –nk.

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Disaggregated Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient Range

Coefficient Median

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

Delayed test-retest reliability

1

62

 

0.87

 

Asian students; Winter to Spring

Delayed test-retest reliability

1

169

 

0.82

 

African American students; Winter to Spring

Delayed test-retest reliability

1

133

 

0.81

 

Hispanic students; Winter to Spring

Delayed test-retest reliability

1

56

 

0.75

 

Multiracial students; Winter to Spring

Delayed test-retest reliability

1

120

 

0.79

 

Students identified as “Other”; Winter to Spring

 

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Delayed Test Retest

K

219

0.46-0.64

0.56

--

African American students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

K

129

0.34-0.61

0.48

--

Hispanic/Latino students 

 – Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

K

533

0.50-0.62

0.56

--

White/Caucasian students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

K

222

0.22-0.45

0.34

--

African American students

– Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

K

134

0.14-0.45

0.30

--

Hispanic/Latino students 

 – Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

K

778

0.27-0.40

0.33

--

White/Caucasian students

– Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

172

0.56-0.74

0.66

--

African American students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

130

0.46-0.69

0.58

--

Hispanic/Latino students 

 – Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

452

0.41-0.56

0.48

--

White/Caucasian students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

205

0.40-0.60

0.51

--

African American students

– Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

142

0.36-0.61

0.50

--

Hispanic/Latino students 

 – Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

705

0.30-0.42

0.36

--

White/Caucasian students

– Fall to Spring