FAST: earlyReading English

Word Segmenting

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyfull bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate Low
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityempty bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Dataempty bubble
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time1-3 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers™ (FAST) is an online software that requires no hardware or special add-ons. FAST is supported by an extensive set of materials to support teachers and students, including self-directed training modules that allow teachers to become certified to administer each of the FAST assessments. The entire FAST assessment package (i.e., reading, math, behavior, and on-line training) is provided at an annual flat rate of $6 per student.

Testers will require 1-4 hours of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

Where to Obtainhttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Address:

FastBridge Learning
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1057

Phone: 612-254-2534

Websitehttp://www.fastbridge.org/

Training materials are included in the cost of the tool.  Additional, optional on-site and webinar-based training services are available for a fee.

Ongoing technical support is available by calling 612-424-3710 or emailing fast1@umn.edu

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers (FAST) earlyReading measure is designed to assess both unified and component skills associated with kindergarten and first grade reading achievement. earlyReading is intended to enable screening and progress monitoring across four domains of reading (Concepts of Print, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Decoding) and provide domain specific assessments of these specific component skills and a general estimate of overall reading achievement.

The objective of the Word Segmenting measure is to assess the student’s ability to separate a spoken word into individual sounds, or phonemes. The examiner says a word and asks the student to say any sounds s/he hears in the word. The resulting score is the number of correctly identified sounds.

The tool is intended for use in K-1 or with ages 5-7.

Administration is computerized and is 1-3 minutes per student. Scoring is done automatically within the software and does not require any additional time

Available scores include: raw scores, percentile scores, developmental benchmarks and cut points, subscale/subtest scores, composite scores, and error analysis.

 

Classification Accuracy

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on GRADE (Spring)

 

Kindergarten

(15th Percentile)

n = 214

Kindergarten

(40th Percentile)

n = 213

1st Grade

(15th Percentile)

n = 161

1st Grade

(40th Percentile)

n = 161

False Positive Rate

0.13

0.24

0.26

0.33

False Negative Rate

0.06

0.25

0.30

0.33

Sensitivity

0.94

0.75

0.70

0.67

Specificity

0.87

0.76

0.74

0.67

Positive Predictive Power

0.37

0.56

0.15

0.29

Negative Predictive Power

0.99

0.89

0.97

0.91

Overall Classification Rate

0.87

0.76

0.74

0.67

AUC (ROC)

0.90

0.78

0.82

0.79

Base Rate

0.07

0.28

0.06

0.17

Cut Points:

28

15

29

30

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

94% sensitivity, 0.87 specificity

90% sensitivity, 0.50 specificity

90% sensitivity, 0.55 specificity

n/a

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

n/a

80% sensitivity, 0.72 specificity

80% sensitivity, 0.64 specificity

85% sensitivity, 0.60 specificity

At XX% Sensitivity, Specificity equals

69% sensitivity, 0.94 specificity

68% sensitivity, 0.79 specificity

70% sensitivity, 0.74 specificity

67% sensitivity, 0.67 specificity

 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

·         Number of States: 1 (Minnesota)

·         Regions: 1

·         Gender

o   47% Male

o   53% Female

·         Race/Ethnicity:

o   65% White, Non-Hispanic

o   0% American Indian/Alaska Native

o   23% Black, Non-Hispanic

o   0% Asian, Pacific Islander

o   6% Hispanic

o   3% Other

·         Disability status:  approximately 11% SWDs

·         First language: approximately 90% English

·         Language proficiency status: 100% English proficient

Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Alternate Form

K

37-38

0.68-0.92

0.82

8.07 (6.21)

 

Alternate Form

1

40

0.67-0.87

0.82

9.83

 

Test-Retest

K

37

--

0.86

--

Collected in Fall 2012, ~2-3 week delay

Delayed Test-Retest

K

834

--

0.61

--

Winter-Spring

Test-Retest

1

36

--

0.97

--

Collected in Fall 2012, ~2-3 week delay

Delayed Test-Retest

1

589

--

0.52

--

Fall-Winter

Delayed Test-Retest

1

582

--

0.70

--

Winter-Spring

Delayed Test-Retest

1

573

--

0.48

--

Fall-Spring

Split-half

K-1

500

--

0.96

--

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year.

Coefficient α

K-1

500

--

0.95

--

Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year.

 

Validity

 

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

 

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient (if applicable)

 

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

Median

Concurrent

1

GRADE

Composite Level K

71

 

0.49

Collected in Fall; The majority of students within the school district were White (78%), with the remaining students identified as either African American (19%), or other (3%). In school District 2, the majority of students within the school district are White (53%), with the remaining students identified as African American (26%), Hispanic (11%), Asian (8%), or other (2%).

Concurrent

K

GRADE Composite Level K

213

 

0.25

Data collected in Spring; See subject information above

Concurrent

1

GRADE Composite Level 1

165

 

0.07

Data collected in Spring; See subject information above

Predictive

1

GRADE Composite Level 1

179

 

0.32

Fall to Spring prediction; See subject information above

Predictive

K

GRADE Composite Level K

228

 

0.58

Winter to Spring prediction; See subject information above

Predictive

1

GRADE Composite Level 1

168

 

0.60

Winter to Spring prediction; See subject information above

Discriminant validity (Middle)

K

Word Segmenting

174

 

Difference stats: t = 48.73

d = 4.69

 

Discriminant validity (End)

K

Word Segmenting

194

 

Difference stats: t = 20.03

d = 1.87

 

Discriminant validity (Beginning)

1

Word Segmenting

252

 

Difference stats: t = 30.09

d = 2.44

 

Discriminant validity (Middle)

1

Word Segmenting

278

 

Difference stats: t = 8.23

d = 0.66

 

Discriminant validity (End)

1

Word Segmenting

269

 

Difference stats: t = 21.66

d = 1.74

 

Concurrent  1 aReading  30   0.76 Spring data collection
Concurrent  K

AIMSweb Phoneme Segmentation

141   0.97 See below.
Concurrent  K

DIBELS Next First Sound Fluency

141   0.76 See below.

AIMSweb phoneme segmentation requires students to listen to a word and respond with all of the sounds, or phonemes, in the word.  The score is the correct number of sounds identified per minute.*Correlations disattenuated based on reported reliabilities.

DIBELS Next First Sound Fluency requires students to listen to words and provide the initial sound in the word.  The score is the number of correct sounds per minute.

The earlyReading validity evidence study coefficients were derived from a sample of approximately 140 students each in Kindergarten and First Grade. Approximately 47% of students were female. Reported races of students were White (59%), Hispanic (9%), Black (12%), American Indian (1%), and Asian/Pacific Islander (18%).  Approximately 21% of students were English Language Learners, 32% were eligible for free or reduced lunch, and 9% received special education services.

Construct and content validity depend substantially on the development and selection of stimuli. See below for a description of the content.

Word Segmenting
The Segmenting task assesses the student’s ability to separate a spoken word into individual sounds, or phonemes. The examiner says a word and asks the student to say any sounds s/he hears in the word. The resulting score is the number of correctly identified sounds. For example, if the examiner says the word stop and the student says /s/ /t/ /o/ /p/, the score for that word is 4 because the student correctly identified the 4 sounds in the word. If the student says /st/ /op/, the score for that word is 2 because the student correctly identified two sound chunks, but not the individual phonemes.

Test Construction. Items for the Segmenting task came from a bank of 220 words. All words with short vowel sounds are decodable consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words or decodable words with initial or final blends (CCVC or CVCC). Words with long vowel sounds (9% of the total words) contain vowel diagraphs (CVVC), silent e (CVC+e), or initial blends +e (CCVC+e). R-Controlled words were not used. Half of the total words begin with continuous sounds and half begin with stop sounds. Each progress monitoring form contains 10 words. The first six items have 3 phonemes; items 7-10 have 4 phonemes, two words with initial blends and two words with final blends. Each form also has two words with each vowel in either long or short form. All words on the segmenting task are unique across forms, except for the last two forms which repeat words. There is no overlap within three corresponding forms for blending and segmenting (i.e., all words are unique across Forms 1,2, and 3 for blending and for segmenting). Across all sets, 30% of words overlap between the Blending tasks and the Segmenting tasks (i.e., the same word may appear in Form 4 of blending and Form 15 of segmenting). All existing consonant blends were available to use.

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Disaggregated Reliability

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Delayed Test Retest

K

49

0.40-0.76

0.61

--

African American students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

K

15

0.03 - 0.82

0.54

--

Hispanic/Latino students 

 – Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

K

163

0.50-0.69

0.61

--

White/Caucasian students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

K

52

0.05-0.55

0.32

--

African American students

– Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

K

20

0.00-0.64

0.28

--

Hispanic/Latino students 

 – Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

K

230

0.11-0.35

0.24

--

White/Caucasian students

– Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

171

0.48-0.68

0.60

--

African American students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

128

0.44-0.68

0.57

--

Hispanic/Latino students 

 – Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

447

0.40-0.55

0.48

--

White/Caucasian students

– Fall to Winter

Delayed Test Retest

1

205

0.43-0.63

0.53

--

African American students

– Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

142

0.39-0.63

0.52

--

Hispanic/Latino students 

– Fall to Spring

Delayed Test Retest

1

692

0.40-0.51

0.46

--

White/Caucasian students

– Fall to Spring