HMH Phonics Inventory (Formerly Scholastic Phonics Inventory)

Reading — Screener Version

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyhalf bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate High
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityhalf bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity DataN A
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual Group
Administration & Scoring Time10 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsNo
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

Scholastic Phonics Inventory costs $600 for a complete kit which includes SPI program software, 60 perpetual student licenses, SPI Inventory Technical Guide, and a Quick Reference Card.

The SPI Expansion Plan costs $400 and adds additional student licenses in increments of 50.

There is a $225 fee for Annual Product Support Plan by site. It entitles users to all point releases and unlimited Tech Support access.

 

Access to a computer is required.

Testers will require less than 1 hour of training.

Accommodations: The first task in SPI ensures that students are able to hear the instructions and use the mouse effectively. Practice items also familiarize students with the format of the test. These items do not factor into students’ scores.

The SPI may be taken with accommodations for students who have difficulty controlling the mouse. An aide or examiner can move the mouse to the response indicated by the student. Scores based on the accuracy of response only, ignoring speed of response, are available and can be used to determine recommended placement and decoding description. Scoring criteria have been developed for students with severe physical disabilities that limited their ability to use the mouse.

The SPI was created to support the pre-reading assessment needs for the older struggling reader. Respectful of the students’ age, the SPI provides appropriate examples and illustrations. With a clean and non-cluttered presentation, the SPI helps student focus on content and skills assessment.
Teachers and administrators can change students’ settings in Scholastic’s management system, Scholastic Achievement Manager (SAM), so that students enrolled in the program as Spanish speakers hear the instructions in Spanish, rather than in English.

Students may click Pause to temporarily halt the test and Play to resume the test. Students may Pause only once in each section of the test.

Technical support is included in Product Support Plan. Staff is available via phone, email and web chat.

SPI tests basic letter recognition, sight word knowledge, and decoding skills. Students who show proficiency with the tested skills are recommended for placement in READ 180®. Students who require foundational reading instruction are recommended for placement in System 44.

SPI contains the following six sections:

1. Practice: The first task in SPI ensures that students are able to hear the instructions and use the mouse effectively. It also familiarizes students with the format of the test. These items do not factor into students’ scores.

2. Letter Names: The Letter Names subtest measures students’ ability to recognize letters of the alphabet. Students hear a letter name and must use the mouse to select the corresponding letter from a list of four choices. SPI measures how quickly and accurately students respond to each item.

3. Sight Words: The Sight Words subtest measures students’ ability to recognize high-frequency sight words. Students hear a word and must use the mouse to select the corresponding word from a list of four words. SPI measures how quickly and accurately students respond to each item.

4. Nonwords (in three parts): The nonwords subtest measures students’ ability to decode. Nonwords are used to prevent students from recognizing words by memory. Students hear a nonsense word and must use the mouse to select the corresponding word from a list of four choices. The nonwords subtest is divided into three sections containing items of increasing difficulty. SPI measures how quickly and accurately students respond to each item.

SPI identifies students as follows: Pre-Decoder, Beginning Decoder, Developing Decoder, Advancing Decoder, and Proficient Decoder. Students are recommended for placement into various levels of System 44, based on these decoding proficiency levels.

While an English language assessment, instructions are available in Spanish. 

SPI is computer administered screening tool that can be used for group or individual students in grades 3 – 12. The test takes 8 – 12 minutes to complete.
Raw, percentile, developmental benchmarks (cut points and benchmarks), subscale/subtest, and composite scores are available.

Raw scores are calculated for sight words accuracy and nonwords accuracy, and for sight words fluency and nonwords fluency. The item fluency thresholds were set so as to differentiate System 44 and READ 180 level decoders. ROC curves were generated to identify optimal individual threshold values for each individual sight word and nonword items. A fluent response must be accurate as well as sufficiently fast. To get credit for a fluent response to an item, the response has to be accurate and the total response time (latency) can not exceed the threshold time. The total fluency score is a composite of the sight word fluency score and the nonword fluency score.

 

Classification Accuracy

Outcome measure: Whether a child was teacher identified as having a decoding problem so severe that a reading comprehension intervention (Read 180) was not appropriate versus having decoding sufficient to focus intervention on reading comprehension.

  n = 91
False Positive Rate 0.13
False Negative Rate 0.17
Sensitivity 0.83
Specificity 0.87
Positive Predictive Power 0.86
Negative Predictive Power 0.84
Overall Classification Rate 0.87
AUC (ROC) 0.824
Base Rate 0.50

 

Generalizability

Classification Accuracy Study
Description of study sample

  • Date: Spring and Fall 2007
  • Number of States: 2
  • Size: 93
  • Region: Southwest
  • Gender:
    • 54% Male
    • 41% Female
    • 5% Unknown
  • Race/Ethnicity:
    • 6% White, Non-Hispanic
    • 7% Black, Non-Hispanic
    • 84% Hispanic
  • Disability Classification: 47% Special Education
  • First Language
    • 64% Spanish
    • 34% English
    • 3% Other
  • Language Proficiency Status: 28% ELL

Cross Validation Studies
Study 1: Description of study sample

  • Date: Spring and Fall 2007
  • Number of States: 2
  • Size: 217
  • Region: Southeast
  • Gender:
    • 52% Male
    • 48% Female  
  • Race/Ethnicity:
    • 45% White, Non-Hispanic
    • 31% Black, Non-Hispanic
    • 9% Hispanic
    • 1% American Indian/Alaska Native
    • 4% Asian/Pacific Islander
    • 3% Other
    • 7% Unknown
  • Disability Classification: 24% Special Education
  • Language Proficiency Status: 30% ELL

Study 2: Description of study sample

  • Date: Spring and Fall 2007
  • Number of States: 2
  • Size: 93
  • Region: Southwest
  • Gender:
    • 54% Male
    • 41% Female
    • 5% Unknown
  • Race/Ethnicity:
    • 6% White, Non-Hispanic
    • 7% Black, Non-Hispanic
    • 84% Hispanic
  • Disability Classification: 47% Special Education
  • First Language
    • 64% Spanish
    • 34% English
    • 3% Other
  • Language Proficiency Status: 28% ELL

Reliability

Type of reliability Age or Grade n (range) Coefficient Alpha SEM Information
Southwestern Sample
Internal Consistency HS 93 0.975
0.934
0.965
4.55
2.47
3.77
SPI Total Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score
Southeastern Sample
Internal Consistency 5 88 0.931
0.840
0.906
4.9
2.65
4.10
SPI Total Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score
Internal Consistency 7 54 0.973
0.912
0.964
4.71
2.60
4.07
SPI Total Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score
Internal Consistency 9 75 0.955
0.886
0.942
4.91
2.56
4.14
SPI Total Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score

 

Correlations Between SPI (All Items) and its Three SPI Alternate Forms
SPI All Items SPI Form A SPI Form B SPI Form C
Fluency Total 0.978 0.983 0.978
Sight Words Fluency Total 0.945 0.953 0.943
Nonwords Fluency Total 0.969 0.975 0.968

 

Validity

Predictive Validity:

Type of Validity Age or Grade Test or Criterion n (range) Coefficient Information / Subjects
Range Median
Southwestern sample
Predictive HS TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency 93 0.77
0.74
0.77
SPI Total Word Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score
Predictive HS TOWRE Phonetic Decoding Efficiency 93 0.68
0.68
0.70
SPI Total Word Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score
Predictive HS Woodcock-Johnson Word Analysis 93 0.79
0.77
0.77
SPI Total Word Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score
Predictive HS Scholastic Reading Inventory 93 0.56
0.52
0.55
SPI Total Word Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score
Southeastern sample
Predictive 5, 7, 9 TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency 217 0.65
0.60
0.64
SPI Total Word Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score
Predictive 5, 7, 9 TOWRE Phonetic Decoding Efficiency 217 0.67
0.53
0.70
SPI Total Word Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score
Predictive 5, 7, 9 Woodcock-Johnson Word Analysis 217 0.62
0.48
0.65
SPI Total Word Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score
Predictive 5, 7, 9 Woodcock-Johnson Letter Word Identification 217 0.55
0.43
0.57
SPI Total Word Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score

Construct Validity:

Type of Validity Age or Grade Test or Criterion n (range) Coefficient Information / Subjects
range median
Southwestern sample
Construct HS SPI scores as predictors of decoding group membership 93 0.70
0.70
0.66
SPI Total Word Fluency Score
SPI Sight Word Fluency Score
SPI Nonword Fluency Score

For the SPI, construct validity is supported if groups that are known to differ in levels of decoding can be shown to differ in performance on the SPI.
Using the Southwestern cross-validation sample, the SPI scores of the System 44 level decoders were compared to those of the Read 180 level decoders.
Descriptive Statistics, Tests of Group Differences, and Effect Sizes for Southwestern Cross-Validation Sample

Measure System 44
Level Decoders Level
(n=49)
Mean (SD)
Read 180 Decoders
(n=44)
Mean (SD)
t Cohen’s d
TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency (SS) 73.d (14.1) 89.1 (9.3) 6.22 1.31
TOWRE Phonetic Decoding Efficiency (SS) 72.4 (20.2) 94.3 (13.3) 6.11 1.60
Woodcock-Johnson Word Analysis (SS) 17.7 (19.5) 39.9 (22.4) 5.12 1.06
SPI Sight Word Fluency 8.4 (6.2) 21.9 (7.6) 9.35 1.95
SPI Nonword Fluency 16.4 (11.3) 43.1 (18.6) 8.39 1.73
SPI Total Fluency 24.7 (16.3) 65.0 (24.6) 9.29 1.93

Note: All t-test values significant at p < .001 level. Validity Coefficients (Point-Biserial Correlation Coefficients) for SPI Scores as Predictors of System 44 Level versus Read 180 Level Decoding Group Membership for the Southwestern Cross-Validation Sample

  Validity Coefficients
Total Fluency Score 0.70
Sight Word Fluency Score 0.70
Nonword Fluency Score 0.66

Note: All validity coefficients significant at p < .001