STAR

Early Literacy

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyhalf bubble
GeneralizabilityBroad
Reliabilityfull bubble
Validityhalf bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Datafull bubble
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual Group
Administration & Scoring Time10 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service & Support Purpose & Other Implementation Information Usage & Reporting

Cost per student for year 1:
$9.00 per student (based on start up, per student fees based on minimum of 203 students. ($1,599.00 + $200.00 fee = $1799.00)

The one time fee for STAR Reading is $1,599.00. It is web-based and includes the tool, software/technical manual, installation guide, testing instructions, remote installation and setup.

Cost for subsequent years:

$0.99 per student per year (203 student minimum).

Computer access is required, with headphones (preferred) or speakers for sound.
Testers will require less than 1 hour of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

Accommodations:
STAR Early Literacy is a computer-adaptive assessment, and the difficulty of items is adjusted automatically to reflect the skill level of a student, including students with special needs.

SEL may be used with students with special or remedial needs beyond the third grade if the student’s skill level is consistent with the domains featured on the assessment.

STAR Early Literacy offers several accommodations for students with disabilities through the accessibility options built into a computer’s operating system. For instance, students with limited motor skills can execute STAR Early Literacy’s mouse-related functions through the keyboard when “mouse keys” is selected under Accessibility Options within the Windows operations system.

For students with limited vision, the introductory screens of STAR Early Literacy respond to the “high contrast” accessibility feature within Windows and the “switch to black and white” accessibility feature in MAC OS 10. STAR Early Literacy is compatible with Mac OS 10’s “zoom in” accessibility feature, which allows users to magnify nearly all STAR Early Literacy screens.

Renaissance Learning, Inc.
PO Box 8036
Wisconsin Rapids, WI 54495
Phone: (800) 338-4204

http://www.renlearn.com

Field tested training manuals are included and should provide all implementation information.

Ongoing technical support is available from the Renaissance Learning technical support staff.

STAR Early Literacy is a computer-adaptive assessment of early literacy skills (seven domains and 41 skills) that can be administered to individuals or groups in approximately 10 minutes. It is intended for students who are in the early reading stages of literacy development. These students will primarily be in pre-K through grade 3, but students of any grade or age can take STAR Early Literacy.

The tool provides information on student reading readiness skills in seven domains, including:

  • General Readiness
  • Graphophonemic Knowledge
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Comprehension
  • Structural Analysis and
  • Vocabulary

The difficulty of items is adjusted automatically to reflect the skill level of all students, including students with special needs.

STAR Early Literacy takes approximately 10 minutes to administer the test. Scoring is automated and does not require any additional time.

Student performance is measured adaptively using skill and domain scores. The Rasch ability scale is transformed to a scaled score and a proficiency score. The scaled score is a non-linear, monotonic transformation resulting in scaled scores ranging from 300 – 900, which is 100 times the typical age range of students for whom STAR Early Literacy is appropriate. Domain and skill scores are Rasch-based estimates of the percentage of items within a domain or skill that a student would be expected to answer correctly.

Vertical scaling allows students’ progress to be monitored across grades rather than just within a grade, and a student’s most recent performance can be compared with the results of previous assessments.

The number of alternate forms is virtually unlimited because SEL is a computer-adaptive assessment.

 

Classification Accuracy

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on STAR Reading
n=2,252
False Positive Rate 27%
False Negative Rate 26%
Sensitivity 74%
Specificity 73%
Positive Predictive Power 57%
Negative Predictive Power 85%
Overall Classification Rate 73%
AUC (ROC) Grade 2: 0.799
Grade 3: 0.866
Grade 4: 0.799
Base Rate 33%
Cut Point: Grade 2: 574
Grade 3: 689
Grade 4: 788

 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

  • Number of States: 27
  • Size: 2,252
  • Region:
    • South
    • West
    • Southwest
    • Midwest
    • Mid-Atlantic
  • Gender:
    • 52.4% Male
    • 47.3% Female
    • 0.3% Unknown
  • SES: 52.9% eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
  • Race/Ethnicity:
    • 44.8% White, Non-Hispanic
    • 18.4% Black, Non-Hispanic
    • 27.4% Hispanic
    • 0.8% American Indian/Alaska Native
    • 1.4% Asian/Pacific Islander
    • 7.1% Unknown

Cross Validation Study Description of study sample:

  • Number of States: 24
  • Size: 241
  • Region:
    • South
    • West
    • Southwest
    • Midwest
    • Mid-Atlantic
  • Gender:
    • 58.5%  Male
    • 41.5%  Female
  • SES: 51.7% eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
  • Race/Ethnicity:
    • 44.5% White, Non-Hispanic
    • 18.6% Black, Non-Hispanic
    • 23.0% Hispanic
    • 0.7% American Indian/Alaska Native
    • 1.5% Asian/Pacific Islander
    • 11.7% Unknown

Reliability

Type of Reliability Age or Grade n (range) Coefficient
Range Median
Split-half
Retest
Pre-K – 3 9,146   0.91
0.86
General Readiness
Split-half
Pre-K – 3 9,146   0.92
Graphophonemic Knowledge
Split-half
Pre-K – 3 9,146   0.92
Phonemic Awareness
Split-half
Pre-K – 3 9,146   0.92
Phonics
Split-half
Pre-K – 3 9,146   0.92
Comprehension
Split-half
Pre-K – 3 9,146   0.92
Structural Analysis
Split-half
Pre-K – 3 9,146   0.91
Vocabulary
Split-half
Pre-K – 3 9,146   0.91

 

Validity

Type of Validity Age or Grade Test or Criterion n (range) Coefficient
Range median
Concurrent K Brigance 21   0.640
Concurrent 3 Canadian Achievement 19   0.880
Concurrent 2 Child Observ. Record 83   0.670
Concurrent K Developing Skills Checklist 72   0.700
Concurrent 1 – 3 ITBS 13-80 0.46-0.72 0.535
Concurrent K Metropolitan (MKIDS) 14   0.880
Concurrent 1 – 3 SAT 26-62 0.50-0.79 0.575
Concurrent K TOPA 11   0.680

 

Concurrent Validity: Summary of STAR Early Literacy Correlations with Test Administered in Spring 2001, Grade K-3
  All K 1 2 3
Number of Students 1,376 198 281 513 384
Number of Coefficients 34 6 7 12 9
Average Validity - 0.64 0.68 0.52 0.57
Overall average 0.59

 

Other External Validity Data: Summary of STAR Early Literacy Correlations with Tests Administered Prior to Spring 2001, Grade K-3
  All K 1 2 3
Number of Students 1,122 94 176 295 557
Number of Coefficients 29 4 5 7 13
Average Validity - 0.49 0.63 0.57 0.59
Overall average 0.58

 

Predictive Validity Data: Summary of Star Early Literacy Predicting Later Performance for Grades Pre-K – 3
  All Pre-K K 1 2 3
Number of Students 61,443 557 30,423 24,25 5,370 558
Number of Coefficients 51 4 15 15 15 2
Average Validity - 0.57 1.52 0.62 0.67 0.77
Overall average 0.58

 

Validity Coefficients of STAR Early Literacy with Itself at Later Time Points with and with STAR Reading over a Two-Year Period for all Cohort Groups Combined and Separately
Group Level Sample Administration Time STAR Early Literacy STAR Reading
Winter Spring Fall Corrected
Total Sample Fall r 0.75 0.69 0.64 0.71
N 1.265 1.382 1.740  
Winter r - 0.78 0.67 0.76
N - 2.022 2.182  
Spring r - - 0.70 0.79
N - - 2.810  

 

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Reliability

Type of Reliability Age or Grade n (range) Coefficient SEM
Range Median
Generic (White) Pre-K – 3 12,097 0.65-0.90 0.82 47
Generic (Black) Pre-K – 3 5,609 0.68-0.89 0.81 52
Generic (Hispanic) Pre-K – 3 10,110 0.72-0.86 0.81 52

 

Validity

Type of Validity Grade Test or Criterion n (range) Coefficient
Range Median
Predictive (White) K – 3 STAR Reading 1,136 Reported coefficient is a single calculation, not a median (SS) 0.691
Predictive (Hispanic) K – 3 STAR Reading 438 0.580
Predictive (Black) K – 3 STAR Reading 892 0.699
Concurrent (White) K – 3 STAR Reading 480 0.650
Concurrent (Hispanic) K – 3 STAR Reading 190 0.593
Concurrent (Black) K – 3 STAR Reading 271 0.624