TPRI Early Reading Assessment

Reading

Rating Summary

Classification Accuracyfull bubble
GeneralizabilityModerate Low
Reliabilityhalf bubble
Validityempty bubble
Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Datahalf bubble
Efficiency
AdministrationIndividual
Administration & Scoring Time2 - 6 Minutes
Scoring KeyComputer Scored
Benchmarks / NormsYes
Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

Cost for year 1:
A complete kit cost $189.95 and includes a Teacher’s Guide, Reading Comprehension Story Booklet, Task Cards, and a Stopwatch. Test Forms are $29.95 for 25.

Cost for subsequent years:
$29.95 for a set of 25 Test Forms.

In addition to these TPRI products published by Brookes Publishing, the TPRI is also available for purchase from two companies (“Liberty Source” and “Wireless Generation”) that offer administration via handheld devices like a Palm Pilot or iTouch, and web based data reporting, review, and analysis.  The TPRI is offered on Tango Software by Liberty Source and mClass Software by Wireless Generation.

Training to administer just the screening requires 30 minutes. Training for the screening and diagnostic sections are almost always completed together (since they are administered together), and requires a minimum of 1 to 2 hours.

When training is provided to help teachers connect assessment results with instruction, training time increases to a total of 3 to 6 hours.

Professionals must administer the test.

Accommodations:
The TPRI Screening and Inventory should be administered to all K-3 special education students at their grade-level placement for reporting purposes. Accommodations for students with special needs can be used in administering the TPRI. Decisions on accommodations should be made on an individual basis, taking into consideration the needs of the student and whether the student routinely receives the accommodation during classroom instruction. If the student has an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) or an instructional plan developed by a Section 504 committee, it may assist you in deciding which accommodations are appropriate. The following accommodations are acceptable:

  • Instructions can be signed to a student with a hearing impairment.
  • A student can place a colored transparency over any material presented.
  • A student can use a place marker.
  • A student can use any other accommodation that is a routine part of their reading, writing, or spelling instruction.

Brookes Publishing
P.O. Box 10624
Baltimore, MD 21285-0624

Phone: 1-800-638-3775
Webite: www.brookespublishing.com

Training manuals are included and should provide all implementation information.

Ongoing technical support is available.

The TPRI Early Reading Assessment consists of a Screening Section and an Inventory Section.  The TPRI Screening Section is designed for classroom teachers to quickly and effectively identify students who may be at risk of reading difficulty. The TPRI Inventory Section is the diagnostic section of the assessment, and is designed to give teachers information about the specific instructional needs of their students. The K-3 screens are based on empirically derived predictors of reading success. They consist of measures of phonological awareness, letter sound correspondence, and word reading skills that predict reading outcomes involving word recognition and comprehension skills. The Screening Section identifies students through the administration of multiple tasks.  Students score either Developed (D) or Still Developing (SD) on each screening task.  However, it is the overall screening score of either D or SD that indicates whether a student is identified as at-risk or likely not at-risk of reading difficulty.

The TPRI Early Reading Assessment is individually administered.  Typically the Screening Section and the diagnostic Inventory Section are administered consecutively in one assessment session.  The Screening Section takes 1-5 minutes per student, with up to 1 minute of additional scoring time.  The Inventory Section takes from 5 to 15 minutes with most students.

Students score 1 for a correct response on an item and 0 for an incorrect response.  At the end of the task, the responses are tallied producing a raw score for the task. A range of raw scores relates to a descriptive score of Developed (D) or Still Developing (SD). Students who score D on the Screening Section are highly likely not at risk for reading difficulty.  Students who score SD may fail to reach grade-level performance in reading if instructional intervention is not provided.  When students are unsuccessful with the Screening Section tasks, it signals a need to gather additional assessment data to determine whether they require intervention to progress.

The diagnostic Inventory Section provides in-depth additional assessment of students who are unsuccessful on the screening.  For students who are successful on the screening, the Inventory Section allows more limited additional assessment.

 

Classification Accuracy

Classification Accuracy in Predicting Proficiency on the Woodcock-Johnson Broad Reading Cluster
  Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
Beginning of Year
n = 743
End of Year
n = 744
Beginning of Year
n = 731
End of Year
n = 735
Beginning of Year
n = 814
Beginning of Year
n = 739
False Positive Rate 0.44 0.39 0.29 0.23 0.23 0.29
False Negative Rate 0.06 0.09 0.07 0.08 0.11 0.06
Sensitivity 0.94 0.91 0.93 0.92 0.89 0.94
Specificity 0.56 0.61 0.71 0.77 0.77 0.71
Positive Predictive Power 0.24 0.25 0.41 0.45 0.31 0.19
Negative Predictive Power 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99
Overall Classification Rate 0.61 0.65 0.75 0.79 0.78 0.73
AUC (ROC) SCR 1: 0.98
SCR 2: 0.94
SCR 3: 0.97
SCR 4: 0.96
SCR 2: 0.96
SCR 3: 0.95
0.95 0.95 0.91
Base Rate 0.13 0.13 0.18 0.17 0.12 0.06
Cut Points: * * ** 8 9 19
At 90% Sensitivity, Specificity equals SCR 1: 0.99
SCR 2: 0.96
SCR 3: 0.95
SCR 4: 0.93
SCR 2: 0.98
SCR 3: 0.92
0.99 0.76 0.80
At 80% Sensitivity, Specificity equals SCR 1: 0.99
SCR 2: 0.98
SCR 3: 0.96
SCR 4: 0.99
SCR 2: 0.99
SCR 3: 0.97
0.99 0.99 0.87
At 70% Sensitivity, Specificity equals SCR 1: 0.99
SCR 2: 0.98
SCR 3: 0.97
SCR 4: 0.99
SCR 2: 0.99
SCR 3: 0.99
0.99 0.99 0.92

* The Kindergarten screen at beginning of year consists of two short tasks: a ten item letter-sound identification task and an 8 item blending onset-rimes and phonemes task.  To be “Developed” (not at-risk) students must provide the correct letter sound for 6 out of the 10 letters on the letter-sound identification task, and blend 4 out of the 8 words on the blending onset-rimes and phonemes task.
Because each task on the screening section is evaluated separately in order to make a decision about risk status, it is not appropriate to simply add or combine the scores (neither raw nor z-scores) from the two separate screening tasks, and then examine the combined ROC curve. Instead we’ve provided a ROC curve for each of the screening tasks separately and presented the AUC and specificity information here for each task individually.  For this reason, these ROC-curves may not be as telling as they will be in other instances, namely the G1-EOY, G2-BOY, and G3-BOY screens, each of which consists of a single task. 

Generalizability

Description of study sample:

  • Number of States: 1
  • Size: 2,293
  • Gender:
    • 49% Male
    • 51% Female 
  • Race/Ethnicity:
    • 26% White, Non-Hispanic
    • 24% Black, Non-Hispanic
    • 22% Hispanic
    • 28% Unknown

Reliability

Type of Reliability Age or Grade n Coefficient
Cronbach’s alpha K - BOY 743 0.90
Cronbach’s alpha K-EOY 743 0.86
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 1 - BOY 731 0.89
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 1 - EOY 735 0.91
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 2 - BOY 814 0.88
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 3 - BOY 739 0.88

 

Validity

Type of Validity Age or Grade Test or Criterion n (range) Coefficient
Construct/Convergent K – BOY WJ-III Broad Reading Cluster 743 0.64
Construct/Convergent K – EOY WJ-III Broad Reading Cluster 743 0.61
Construct/Convergent Grade 1 – BOY WJ-III Broad Reading Cluster 731 0.80
Construct/Convergent Grade 1 – EOY WJ-III Broad Reading Cluster 735 0.87
Construct/Convergent Grade 2 – BOY WJ-III Broad Reading Cluster 814 0.73
Construct/Convergent Grade 3 – BOY WJ-III Broad Reading Cluster 739 0.83

 

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Disaggregated Reliability, Validity, and Classification Data for Diverse Populations

Disaggregated Reliability

Type of Reliability Age or Grade n Coefficient Information/Subjects
Cronbach’s alpha K – BOY 184 0.88 Black
Cronbach’s alpha K – EOY 184 0.86 Black
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 1 – BOY 165 0.91 Black
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 1 – EOY 165 0.95 Black
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 2 – BOY 200 0.88 Black
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 3 – EOY 311 0.92 Black
Cronbach’s alpha K – BOY 162 0.89 Hispanic
Cronbach’s alpha K – EOY 162 0.87 Hispanic
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 1 – BOY 153 0.92 Hispanic
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 1 – EOY 153 0.93 Hispanic
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 2 – BOY 185 0.90 Hispanic
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 3 – EOY 265 0.91 Hispanic
Cronbach’s alpha K – BOY 198 0.92 White
Cronbach’s alpha K – EOY 198 0.84 White
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 1 – BOY 184 0.93 White
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 1 – EOY 184 0.88 White
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 2 – BOY 222 0.90 White
Cronbach’s alpha Grade 3 – EOY 274 0.88 White